Chapter 22 The Ankle and Foot. Talocrural Joint Distal fibula Tibia Talus. Midfoot Navicular Cuboid 3 cuneiform bones Forefoot 5 metatarsals Phalanges. Osteology. Osteology of Foot and Ankle. Ligaments of Talocrural (TCJ), Subtalar (STJ) and Midtarsal Joints (MTJ). Anterior
Movement in the direction of eversion, abduction and dorsiflexion.
Movement toward inversion, adduction, and plantar flexion.
–Supinates (dominated most by plantar flexion with inversion and adduction)
Subtalar – Closed chain pronation (calcaneus everts, talus adducts and flexes)
– Closed chain supination (calcaneus inverts, talus adducts and dorsiflexes)
Subtalar pronation – Promotes mobility in MTJ
Subtalar supination – Promotes stability in MTJ and forefoot.
Depends on subtalar joint biomechanics
First ray hypermobility – Dorsal translation with soft endpoint.
Subtalar varus – Inverted twist within body of calcaneus.
Forefoot varus – Inversion deviation of forefoot relative to bisection of posterior calcaneus.
Forefoot valgus – Eversion deviation of forefoot relative to bisection of posterior calcaneus.
Examination of knee, hip, ankle, and spine is essential!
First degree – Complete rupture of ATFL
Second degree – Complete rupture of ATFL and CFL
Third degree – Dislocation in which ATFL, CFL, and PTFL are ruptured