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The Power Politics of House Medici

The Power Politics of House Medici. Matthew Lang Dr. Michael Levin, Professor The Italian Renaissance. Coat of Arms of House Medici. Early Modern Timeline A s it applies to House Medici Wealth and Influence Political Extent Political Extent con’t Cosimo de’ Medici Lorenzo de’ Medici

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The Power Politics of House Medici

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  1. The Power Politics of House Medici Matthew Lang Dr. Michael Levin, Professor The Italian Renaissance Coat of Arms of House Medici

  2. Early Modern Timeline • As it applies to House Medici • Wealth and Influence • Political Extent • Political Extent con’t • Cosimo de’ Medici • Lorenzo de’ Medici • Interregnum or Interregna • Lorenzo II de’ Medici • Michelangelo • Medici Patronage • Leo X • Clement VII • Pius IV & Leo XI • Catherine de’ Medici • Marie de’ Medici • Works Cited

  3. Lorenzo II de’ Medici: 1492-1519 Alessandro de’ Medici (1st Duke of Florence): 1510-1537 Election of Clement VII: 1523 Pazzi Conspiracy: 1478 Founding of Medici Bank & Ciompi Revolt: 1378 Cosimo I de’ Medici: 1519-1574 Black Plague: 1348 Lorenzo de’ Medici: 1449-1492 Marie de’ Medici: 1573-1642 Duchy of Florence & Publication of The Prince: 1532 Sack of Rome: 1527 1300 95 Theses: 1517 1750 ExsurgeDomine: 1520 Platonic Academy: 1462 Election & Death of Leo XI: 1605 Giovanni di Bicci de’ Medici: 1360-1429 Catherine de’ Medici: 1519-1589 2nd Interregnum: 1494-1512 Cosimo de’ Medici: 1389-1464 Election of Leo X: 1513 Gian Gastone de' Medici (The Last Medici): 1671-1737 Grand Duchy of Tuscany (Cosimo I de’ Medici): 1569 Michelangelo Buonarroti: 1475-1564 Election of Pius IV: 1559

  4. Wealth and Influence • Banking • Giovanni di Bicci de’ Medici • Founder of Medici Bank • Florin • Standard unit of currency • Innovative accounting methodology • Results in huge sums of Medici wealth • Textile Economy • Florentine business • Facilitation into European market • Utilization of the River Arno for dying purposes • Ciompi Revolt (1378) • Ultimately unsuccessful • Theoretically in response to Black Plague and working conditions of Florence 1500-Giovanni di Bicci de’ Medici

  5. Extent of Political Influence • De facto citizen leaders and patrons of the arts • Members of the Priori (Ruling body) • Signori of Florentine Republic • Control through— • Banking • Economics • Education • Florentine Humanism • Platonic Academy (1462) • Nepotism • Governmental domination • “Investment” • Marriage and Religion Alessandro de’ Medici: First Duke of Florence between 1511 & 1537

  6. Political Influence con’t • Use of power to beautify Florence and created the modern image of a center of the Renaissance • Culminating in creation of Duchy of Florence(Alessandro de’ Medici in 1532) and Grand Duchy of Tuscany (Cosimo I de’ Medici in 1569) • Among other titles (i.e. Duchy of Urbino, Penne, Nemours, Sieva, Rover) Cosimo I de’ Medici circa 1538

  7. Cosimo de’ Medici (1389-1464) • “ilVecchio” • the Elder (not to be confused with Cosimo I de’ Medici) • Father of House Medici • Prominent banker and “night time” political activist • Expansion of Medici bank into European market • Began framework to install Medici dominance (oligarchy) in Florentine Republic • Cosimo de’ Medici by Bronizno

  8. Lorenzo de’ Medici (1449-1492) • “ilMagnifico” • -the Magnificent • Pazzi Conspiracy (1478) • Attempt to assassinate Lorenzo and his brother (Giuliano de’ Medici) • Failed attempt on Lorenzo, successful on Giuliano • Modern understanding of vendettas • Capable politician and patron of the arts • (ex. Michelangelo, Raphael, da Vinci) • Somewhat unsuccessful in banking (i.e. the beginnings of the decline of the Medici monopoly on banking) • Often compared to weak son (i.e. Piero II de’ Medici) "Lorenzo the Magnificent“ by Agnolo Bronzino

  9. Interregnum OR Interregna • Piero II de’ Medici • Expulsion of House Medici from Florence from 1494-1512 • A LOOK AHEAD: Medici return in 1512 as a precursor to The Prince (Niccolo Machiavelli) • Dedication to Lorenzo II de’ Medici, Duke of Urbino • Two others • 1433-34 • Affected Cosimo (the Elder) de’ Medici during his ascension • 1527-1530 • Florence becomes a Republic free of House Medici subsequent to the 1527 Sack of Rome • Affected Alessandro de’ Medici, first hereditary Duke of Florence Niccolo Machiavelli second half of 16th c.

  10. Lorenzo II de’ Medici (1492-1519) • Family nepotism • Created Duke of Urbino by Pope Leo X (1516) • Signori of Florence • 1514-1519 • Return of the Medici to Florence after 1494-1512 Interregnum • Famously tortured Niccolo Machiavelli • Dedication of The Prince Lorenzo II de’ Medici: 1516-1519

  11. Michelangelo (1475-1564) • Under Medici graces as a child • Given best humanist education by Lorenzo de’ Medici • Pre-eminent artistry- • Designed Medici Chapel/Tombs • Various other projects for Florence • Sistine Chapel, Statue of David • Beautification of Florence Michelangelo Buonarroti

  12. Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore-Florentine Duomo Arnolfo di Cambio and Filippo Brunelleschi Medici Chapel, New Sacristy, Florence Italy-Michelangelo Cappella dei Magi- Benozzo Gozoli

  13. Leo X (r. 1513-1521) • Giovanni di Lorenzo de’ Medici • First Medici pope • “…let us enjoy it…” • Use of indulgences for construction of St. Peter’s Basilica • Reigned concurrent with the beginnings of the Protestant Reformation (i.e. 1517: Martin Luther’s95 Theses) • ExsurgeDomine (1520) • Famous for nepotistic behavior • Ex. Lorenzo II de’ Medici, Duke of Urbino/GiuliodiGiuliano de’ Medici, Pope Clement VII Portrait of Pope Leo X and his cousins, cardinals Giulio de’ Medici and Luigi de Rossi

  14. Clement VII (r. 1523-1534) • GiuliodiGiuliano de’ Medici • Sack of Rome (1527) • Hostage of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor/King of Spain • Political pope— • Creation of Duchy of Florence in favor of House Medici (i.e. Alessandro de’ Medici) • Strategic alliance making • i.e. Catherine de’ Medici to Henry II • Political game between graces of Holy Roman Emperor/King of Spain (Charles V) and French King (Francis I & League of Cognac) • Patronized Raphael and Michelangelo Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici, Pope Clement VII (1523-34)

  15. Pius IV (r. 1559-1565) & Leo XI (r. 1605) Pope Leo XI Giovanni Angelo Medici (1499-1565) Painting by Bartolomeo Passarotti

  16. Catherine de’ Medici (1519-1589) • Daughter of Lorenzo II de’ Medici, Duke of Urbino • Consort Queen of France (Henry II) • Regent Queen of France (sporadic: Francis II & Charles IX) • St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre (1572) • French Religious Wars • French crown passes from House Valois to House Bourbon after her male children die • Example of Medici “investment” • Married to French king in power play by Pope Clement VII Catherine de' Medici wears the black cap and veil of widow, after 1559

  17. Marie de’ Medici (1573-1642) • Daughter of Francesco I de’ Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany • Consort Queen of France (Henry IV) • Regent Queen of France (Louis XIII) • Political ambitions • In competition with Secretary of State: Cardinal-Duke Richelieu • Example of Medici “investment” Maria de' Medici as a young girl

  18. Works Cited/Q & A • Gage, John. Life in Italy at the Time of the Medici. London: Batsford, 1968. • Goldthwaite, A. Richard. The Medici Bank and the World of Florentine Capitalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987; Past & Present Society. http://www.jstor.org/stable/650959 . • Hibbert, Christopher. The House of Medici: Its Rise and Fall. New York: Morrow Quill Paperbacks, 1980. • Jurdjevic, Mark. Civic Humanism and the Rise of the Medici. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1999; Renaissance Quarterly, Renaissance Society of America vol. 52. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2901833 . • Luchinat, Cristina, Suzanne Butters, Claudio Pizzorusso, Anna Testaverde, Marco Chiarini, Janet Cox-Rearick, Alan Darr, Larry Feinberg, AnnamariaGiusti, Richard Goldthwaite, Lucia Meoni, and Kirsten Piacenti. The Medici, Michelangelo, & the Art of Late Renaissance Florence. New Haven: Yale University Press in Association with the Detroit Institute of Arts, 2002. • Martines, Lauro. April Blood: Florence and the Plot Against the Medici. Oxford University Press, 2003. • Strathern, Paul. The Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance. London: Jonathan Cape, 2003.

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