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Chapter 1: Rocks and Minerals Study Guide. Mineral Nonliving solid material that has a definite chemical makeup Found in the Earth’s outermost layer- the crust You use minerals every day! Windows, wires, sunscreen, toothpaste, and lots more.

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slide1

Chapter 1: Rocks and Minerals Study Guide

  • Mineral
  • Nonliving solid material that has a definite chemical makeup
  • Found in the Earth’s outermost layer- the crust
  • You use minerals every day!
    • Windows, wires, sunscreen, toothpaste, and lots more
  • Properties of a mineral
  • Luster: the way a mineral shines, or reflects light.
  • Metallic (looks like metal)
  • nonmetallic (does not look like metal)
  • shiny and dull
  • Streak: color of a mineral when it is ground into a powder. This is done by scrapping it across a ceramic tile.
  • Hardness: How easily a mineral is scratched. This can be done using a fingernail, penny, or nail. You could also check the hardness on the Mohs Hardness Scale.
  • Cleavage: When a mineral breaks on a flat surface.
  • Color: The color of a rock when you look at it.
  • Mohs Hardness Scale
  • Is a list showing how hard minerals are
  • Listed in order from softest to hardest
  • Listed using numbers 1-10
slide2

I am a GEOLOGIST

I am a scientist who studies rocks

  • Rocks
  • Rocks are solid material made up of one or more minerals
  • Three Types of Rocks
  • Igneous Rocks
  • Form when melted rock cools and hardens
  • Minerals in the rocks form crystals
  • Some igneous rocks formed by volcanoes
  • Obsidian, basalt, and granite are types of igneous rocks
  • The Rock Cycle
  • Shows the process that can change rocks
  • A rock can change from one type of rock to another
  • Sedimentary Rocks
  • Form when sand, bits of rocks, soil, and once living things are pressed together and harden.
  • These materials are called sediments
  • Sandstone and Limestone are types of sedimentary rocks
  • Metamorphic Rocks
  • Rocks changed by heat and pressure from below the Earth’s surface.
  • Gniess is formed from granite (an igneous rock) that has undergone heat and pressure.

Weathering

The breaking down of rocks into smaller pieces called sediment