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CH. 1 SEC. 1. The Migration to America. Objectives. Explain why scientists believe the early Am. came from Asia. Describe the early civilizations of Meso-America Describe the early cultures of North Am. Asian Migration to America. 100,000 years ago, Earth in Ice Age.

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ch 1 sec 1

CH. 1 SEC. 1

The Migration to America

objectives
Objectives
  • Explain why scientists believe the early Am. came from Asia.
  • Describe the early civilizations of Meso-America
  • Describe the early cultures of North Am.
asian migration to america
Asian Migration to America
  • 100,000 years ago, Earth in Ice Age.
  • Scientists use radiocarbon dating to determine how old objects are
  • Land between Alaska & Russia exposed (Beringia)
  • People cross land bridge, followed animals.
  • It is believed that people started arriving between 15,000 and 30,000 years ago.
early civilizations of meso america
Early Civilizations of Meso-America
  • Nomadic hunter-gathers learn to farm
  • Called Agricultural Revolution
  • Occurred in Southern Mexico & Central America (Meso-America)
early civilizations of meso america6
Early Civilizations of Meso-America
  • Main crop is maize
  • Allowed people to settle, for harvest
  • Social class & government develop
the olmec maya
The Olmec & Maya
  • Olmec- first culture that developed (Mother culture)
  • Art
  • Religious symbolism
  • Hieroglyphic writing
  • Bar and dot numbering system
  • Calendar
  • Bloodletting ritual
  • Ball game
pokatok
Pokatok

3000 B.C.

1-6 players

Solid rubber ball

Decapitated losers

mayan
Mayan
  • Mayan- emerged later in Yucatan Penninsula
mayan calendar16
Mayan Calendar

“end of the days”

“Calendar Round”

tracked heavenly bodies

December 23, 2012 AD

slide17

Tikal – metropolis of 50,000

-Astronomy

Calendar

Charted movements

-Architecture

Pyramids

Stone craft

-Canals and Irrigation

Fortifications

Classic Mayan Period 250-900 AD

mayan achievements
Mayan Achievements

Government

Organized city-states

Mathematics

  • Concept of zero
  • System based on twenty

Writing

  • pictographic
  • Complex

Art

  • Brush art in books
  • Red and black
  • Mainly sculptures
  • Stelas
  • Jade
the aztec
The Aztec
  • Aztecs invaded Mexico from north
  • Established Tenochtitlan
  • Conquered neighbors
aztec society
Aztec Society

Stratified

  • Pilli (Nobility)
  • Warriors – could move up
  • Artisans and Merchants
  • Macehualles (farmers)
  • Women – lower status

Law

  • Harsh
  • Death
  • Sacrifice
the inca
The Inca
  • Andes Mountains – Peru
  • Irrigation
  • Pyramids
  • “empire builders”
  • Detailed hierarchy
  • Building projects – massive, tight stones
  • Road systems
  • Quechua– common language
  • Rediscovery of the “lost city”
    • 1911
    • American archaeologist
north american cultures
North American Cultures
  • Hohokam- “Canal Builders” 300 BC
  • dug over 500 miles of canals to bring water to gardens growing corn, cotton, beans and squash
slide28

Anasazi- NW & AR

  • Used irrigation for crops
  • Built large pueblos
  • Kiva-underground ceremonial chamber
  • Civilization disappeared
  • Diet- corn,beans,squash,turkey,…
the mississippian culture
The Mississippian Culture
  • Started in Mississippi River Valley
  • Cultivated corn & beans
  • Spread north and east
  • Mound builders (Moundville, AL)
slide32

Adena – began building their dead under massive mounds of earth in the Ohio River Valley, some date the Serpent Mound back to the Adena

  • Hopewell – began to settle into permanent villages around 200 B.C.
  • Mississippian Culture – started as early as 700 A.D. around the Mississippi Rive Valley (rich soil left by flooding)
slide33

Mississippian People

  • Last Mound Builder culture (800-1500’s AD)
  • farmers
  • Traveled the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers
  • stratified society
  • Widespread trade
  • Rituals/religion centered on the cycle of the sun
  • Three Sisters: squash, maize, beans
slide36

At the height of her days, Chahokia had over 40,000 people living within and around her walls

  • The city was built in a series of 14 stages between 900 and 1150 AD.
  • Located across the Mississippi River from St.Louis in Collinsville, Illinois.
  • Center of business, religion, politics and art.
  • Over 85 temple and burial mounds
  • In the center of the temple was an “eternalfire” that always burned
moundville alabama
Moundville, Alabama
  • Occupied 1000 – 1450 A.D.
  • Political & Religious Center
  • Rich soil, woods, river
  • Abandoned by 16th century