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Ch.22 Sec.1

Ch.22 Sec.1. Building a German Nation. I. Taking Initial Steps Toward Unity A. Early 1800s, German-speaking people lived in small states, Hohenzollern Prussia, & the Austrian Hapsburg Empire. B. 1806-1812 Napoleon annexed German land along the Rhine river for France.

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Ch.22 Sec.1

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  1. Ch.22 Sec.1 Building a German Nation

  2. I. Taking Initial Steps Toward Unity A. Early 1800s, German-speaking people lived in small states, Hohenzollern Prussia, & the Austrian Hapsburg Empire. B. 1806-1812 Napoleon annexed German land along the Rhine river for France. 1. Dissolved Holy Roman Empire & forced the Austrian emperor to become a mere king. 2. Organized German states into the Rhine Confederation. 3. Initially some Germans wanted French enlightened policies—serfs freed, easy trade, abolish laws against Jews, but some wanted a unified German state. 4. Congress of Vienna created the German Confederation led by Austria. (after Napolean’s defeat) C. 1830s Prussia created the Zollverein (economic union), which ended tariffs among German states. D. 1848, Frankfurt Meeting—liberals demanded German unity & offered throne to Prussia’s Frederick William IV; he refused.

  3. II. Bismarck Unites Germany A.Otto von Bismarck—the “blood & iron chancellor” 1. From Prussia’s Junker class (conservative, landowning nobles) 2. Loyal to Hohenzollern monarchy, was a diplomat, promoted to prime minister, finally became chancellor-highest official of a monarch. 3. Used Realpolitik—practical policies based on the states’ needs 4. Built up the Prussian army to pursue an aggressive foreign policy. B. Prussia declares war 1. 1864 made alliance with Austria & took land from Denmark. 2. 1866 attacked Austria, won/annexed northern German states. 3. Dissolved German Confederation & created new one led by Prussia. 4. 1870 France declares war on Prussia over Ems Dispatch a.Bismarck released telegram to the press that made it seem like William I insulted the French. b.France accepts humiliating peace after defeat.

  4. III. Birth of the German Empire A. 1871 Second Reich is born w/ King William I as Kaiser (emperor). B. Constitution set up bicameral legislature 1. Bundesrat—upper house, appointed by rulers, could veto decisions of Reichstag 2. Reichstag—lower house, elected by universal male suffrage

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