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Psychology 20

Psychology 20

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Psychology 20

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  1. Psychology 20 History of Schools of thought and Elements of Learning

  2. Defining Psychology Observe the behaviour in the pictures on page 2 and 4. Observe the photo’s on pages 2 to 4 --- What types of behaviour can you identify? What visual clues did you see to formulate your answer?

  3. Nature vs Nurture How many people believe that you are born with your personality? How many people believe that your environment determines your personality? What kind of environments/situations are people exposed to when developing?

  4. Shaping Shaping – reinforcing positive and negative behaviour See figure 1.3 in your textbook. ( p. 6 ) Explain in your own terms what the cartoon is trying to show:

  5. “ Give me a dozen healthy infants and my own specific world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one and train him or her to become any type of specialist I might want to select...-- John B. Watson

  6. How does this quote reflect the idea of shaping? 2. Do you agree or disagree with this theory? Explain your reasons: • What, if any, are the limits to shaping? • If John Watson is correct, is there such a thing as free will?

  7. Read ‘Psychology Update” on page 40 • What does the ‘update’ state about shaping animals?

  8. Psychology & Literature -- Shaping • Many fairy tales and fables end with moral or lessons about right and wrong behaviour. You are to choose one of the following and answer the following questions: ( max groups of 3 ) • The Ugly Duckling • The Brave Tin Soldier • Chicken Little • The Golden Goose

  9. Fairy Tale Questions • What was the moral? • What behaviours are identified in the story? ( Eg. Jealousy , greed,.... ) • What animals were used in the tale? • What ‘human’ behaviours did those animals display? • How might the story shape a child’s behaviour?

  10. Naturalistic Observation • Analyzing the behaviour of humans and other animals in their environment. • What do you feel are the advantages and disadvantages of naturalistic observations vs observation?

  11. Scientific Method • specific problem • Formulate hypothesis • ( what does this mean?) • Collect data through observation and experiment • Analyze data

  12. History of Psychology Read pages 10 and 11 and give a quick summary about the following: • Greek Philosophers (4th Century) • Nicolaus Copernicus (1550) • Galileo (17th Century) • Dualism (17th Century) • Rene Descartes, Biologist ( 19th Century )

  13. Overview of some key figures: • Sigmund Freud psychoanalysis From Vienna, Austria Studied the unconscious mind Free Association – avoid censoring thoughts Dream Analysis – unconscious revealing primitive urges ( eat, sleep, .... )

  14. Sir Francis Galton • 19th century mathematician and scientist • Heredity influences a person’s character and behaviour • Traced ancestry and found greatness runs in families • Invented procedures primitive to modern personality tests

  15. Ivan Pavlov • Behaviourism – investigate observable behaviour • Nobel Prize in 1904 – physiology of digestion • Tuning fork – dog food – salivate = tuning fork – salivate • Stimulus and response

  16. B F. Skinner American behavioural psychologist Utopia – conditioning behaviour with rewards and punishments novelist social visionary

  17. Carl Rogers / Abraham Maslow • Humanistic psychology – backlash to behavioural • Human nature as active and creative • Maslow’s hierarchy – pyramid of self actualization

  18. Read page 7 – Elephant and 3 blind men • What is the lesson of this story in terms of psychology? • Do you believe that dreams, feelings and fantasies are also an important part of human behaviour? Why or why not?