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Chapter 20 Applied Psychology. Please answer the following True or False An aptitude test measures a persons general knowledge base. Scientific management (Theory X) is an approach to managing employees that emphasizes work efficiency.

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Please answer the following True or False

  • An aptitude test measures a persons general knowledge base.
  • Scientific management (Theory X) is an approach to managing employees that emphasizes work efficiency.
  • 3. Territorial markers are objects and other signals that are used only to mark residential settings
  • 4. Attentional overload is a stressful condition caused when sensory stimulation, information and social contacts make excessive demands on attention
  • 5.Open teaching is instruction based on active teacher student discussion
industrial organizational psychology
Industrial-Organizational Psychology
  • Applied Psychology: Use of psychological principles and research methods to solve practical problems
  • Also used in:
  • Employment settings, machine design, educational settings, jury selections
other aspects of i o psychology
Other Aspects of I-O Psychology
  • Personnel Psychology: Branch of I-O psychology concerned with testing, selection, placement, and promotion of employees
  • Job Analysis: Detailed description of skills, knowledge, and activities required by a particular job
  • Critical Incidents: Situations where competent employees must be able to cope
  • Biodata: Detailed biographical information about a job applicant
psychological testing
Psychological Testing
  • Vocational Interest Tests
  • Aptitude Tests
  • Multimedia Computerized Tests
  • Assessment Centers
other types of tests
Other types of tests
  • Situational Judgment Tests
  • In Basket test
  • Leaderless group discussion
management theories
Management Theories
  • Scientific Management (Theory X): Approach to managing employees that emphasizes work efficiency
  • Theory Y: Emphasizes human relations at work; sees people as industrious, responsible, and interested in challenging work
  • Which do you think is more effective?
management strategies
Management Strategies
  • Participative Management: Employees at all levels are directly involved in decision making
  • Management by Objectives: Workers are given specific goals to meet so they can know if they are doing a good job
  • Self-Managed Team: Group of employees who work together toward shared goals
  • Quality Circles: Voluntary employee discussion groups that look to improve quality and look for ways to solve business problems
job satisfaction is highest when
Job Satisfaction Is Highest When:
  • Listed in order of importance:
    • Work is interesting
    • Enough help and equipment exist to get job done
    • Enough information to get job done
    • Enough authority to get job done
  • Note that nothing relating to pay is listed in the top four (pay is ranked fifth)!
four styles of response to needing a new job
Four styles of response to needing a new job
  • Vigilant
  • Complacent
  • Defensive Avoidant
  • Hypervigilant
environmental psychology
Environmental Psychology
  • Physical Environments
  • Social Environments
  • Behavioral Environments
cognitive representations of the physical environment
Cognitive Representations of the Physical Environment

Example: a therapist telling a kid to draw a picture of their family

draw a map of this campus

Draw a Map of this campus

map processing
Map Processing
  • What things are on your maps?
  • What did you leave out from your maps?
  • What common landmarks did you have with your neighbors?
  • Were some parts overrepresented than others? (bigger or more detailed)
  • Does this map show what’s most important to you at RCC?
  • Territorial Behavior: Any behavior that tends to define a space as one’s own or that protects it from intruders
  • Territorial Markers: Objects and other signals that indicate ownership or control of a particular area
    • Gates, pictures, plants, posters, decorations
    • Check your psychology professor’s office to find some examples of territorial markers
    • This is why everyone is sitting so close together today
  • Crowding: Subjective feelings of being overstimulated by social inputs or loss of privacy
    • When crowding causes a loss of control over one’s immediate social environment, stress can result
    • John Calhoun’s “Horrible Mousery” is a good example of how overcrowding can affect mice, population returns to baseline
    • When do people react differently to crowds? And why?
human potential
Human Potential

Humans can actually pay attention to and process more than twice the amount of stimuli we normally receive

architectural psychology
Architectural Psychology
  • Study of the effects buildings have on behavior; buildings can be designed using psychological and behavioral principles
    • Making rooms with more space and more light, having bathrooms in the middle of the hall; higher or lower ceilings
    • Feng Shui
attentional overload
Attentional Overload
  • Stressful condition that occurs when sensory stimulation, information, and social contacts make excessive demands on attention
  • Noise Pollution: Stressful, annoying, and intrusive noise. Usually generated by machines (jackhammers, sirens, planes)
teaching styles
Teaching Styles
  • Direction Instruction: Factual information presented by lecture, demonstration, and rote practice
  • Open Teaching: Active student-teacher discussion is emphasized
  • What are the benefits? What does Ben use?
jury behavior
Jury Behavior
  • Jurors rarely can put aside biases, attitudes, and beliefs when making a decision
  • Jurors are not very good at separating evidence from other information
  • Final verdict is often influenced by inadmissible evidence
  • Jurors cannot suspend judgment until all information is in; opinion often formed early in trial
jury selection
Jury Selection
  • Mock Jury: Group that realistically simulates a courtroom jury
  • CSI: if we have time
scientific jury selection
Scientific Jury Selection
  • Social science principles are applied to jury selection process
    • Gather demographic information
    • Perform community survey to get information about attitudes towards case
    • Look for authoritarian personality traits in potential jurors
      • Tend to believe that punishment is effective and more likely to vote to convict
    • Look at nonverbal behavior
death qualified jury
Death-Qualified Jury
  • Jury composed of people who favor death penalty or are at least indifferent to it
sports psychology
Sports Psychology
  • Study of behavioral dimensions of sports performance
  • Task Analysis: Breaking sports skills into subparts so that key elements can be identified and taught
  • Motor Skills: Series of actions molded into a smooth and efficient performance
  • Mental Practice: Imagining a skilled performance to help learning
  • Peak Performance: Physical, emotional, and mental states are harmonious and optimal