Course 10th • Economy and demographics • From emerging to industrialized countries
Demographics • Critical thinking p.152 # 1, 2, 3, 5(10 min. in team, one sheet per team) • Optimum vs Maximum human pop. • Technology: a solution or a temporary 'fix' • Class struggles? • Slowing or accelerating growth?
How the demographics impact the wealth of a country • Reducing birth rate allow more resource to raise children • Parents put more energy to get the children higher education • A higher rate of active population (lower dependency rate) generates more work
Demographic impact Source: Images from http://populationpyramid.net/, produced using data from: Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision
How does socioeconomical factors are linked to environment? • Development needs resources! • Supply and demand From wikimedia.org
Examples • Oil demand has raised continuously over the past years
Supply and demand illustration • WTI: Western Texas Intermediate • Brent: North Sea (Europe) ? Weekly price of WTI and Brent in dollars per barrel, Jan 5, 2001 to Feb 22, 2011. Historical data from EIA; Feb 22 values from Oil-Price.net.
Oil price fluctuations http://www.marketoracle.co.uk/Article1375.html
Environmental impact • Extraction and transformation of resources impact the environment: Alberta Tar Sands Photograph by Peter Essick; http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2009/03/canadian-oil-sands/kunzig-text
Alberta Tar sands • Since the cost of isolating the oil from the sand, the industry was low from 1960 to the end of the 1990s • Surge from the 2000s brought the industry to a fast forward development
Effect on the economy Real Gross Domestic Product, per capita, by region,(Ottawa: Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2006)http://ecommunity.pwsd76.ab.ca/file.php/863/moddata/resource/17718/ss_09/m4/s2/ss09_m4_s2_l01_p2.html
Extraction oil from the sand Sam Abuelsamid, http://green.autoblog.com/2007/01/27/shell-plans-to-quadruple-canadian-oil-sands-production/
Extracting oil from the sand Division of Energy & Fuels - American Chemical Societyhttp://www.ems.psu.edu/~pisupati/ACSOutreach/Oil_Sands.html
Effects on the environment • Contaminated water used in the extraction process is released in the Athabasca River Source: Environment Canada: http://www.ec.gc.ca/doc/publications/pollution/COM1396/index-eng.htm
Causes and consequences • Demographic growth • Economic growth • Demand on a resource • Raise of the prices • New supplies of resources available • Technological novelty • Positive or negative impact on the environment
Activity • Can gold mining can be influenced by similar tendencies? • What creates a demand? • How the gold price might change? • How the industry will react? • How will it eventually impact the environment?
Activity • Can you find another resource that might be influenced through the international market? • What is the resource? • Who are the main producers ? • Who are the main consumers ? • What are the events that drove the prices up or down? • What were the environmental impact of such prices fluctuations? • How the resource exploitation might impact the environment?