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Chapter 5 Biodiversity and Conservation. Section 1: Biodiversity. Section 2: Threats to Biodiversity. Section 3: Conserving Biodiversity. Biodiversity and Conservation. Chapter 5. 5.1 Biodiversity. What is biodiversity?.

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Chapter 5 Biodiversity and Conservation


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    1. Chapter 5 Biodiversity and Conservation Section 1: Biodiversity Section2: Threats to Biodiversity Section 3: Conserving Biodiversity

    2. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 5.1 Biodiversity What is biodiversity? • Biodiversity is the variety of life in an area that is determined by the number of different species in that area. • Biodiversity increases the stability of an ecosystem and contributes to the health of the biosphere.

    3. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 5.1 Biodiversity • The variety of genes or inheritable characteristics that are present in a population comprises its genetic diversity. • Genetic diversity increases the chances that some species will survive during changing environmental conditions or during the outbreak of disease.

    4. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 5.1 Biodiversity • The number of different species and the relative abundance of each species in a biological community is called species diversity.

    5. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 5.1 Biodiversity • The variety of ecosystems that are present in the biosphere is called ecosystem diversity. • An ecosystem is made up of interacting populations and the abiotic factors that support them.

    6. Biodiversity and Conservation • Wild species serve as reservoirs of desirable genetic traits that might be needed to improve domestic crop species. Chapter 5 5.1 Biodiversity The Importance of Biodiversity • Most of the world’s food crops come from just a few species. Teosinte plant Domestic corn plant

    7. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 5.1 Biodiversity • Scientists continue to find new extracts from plants and other organisms that help in the treatment of human diseases. Madagascar periwinkle

    8. Biodiversity and Conservation • Green plants provide oxygen to the atmosphere and remove carbon dioxide. Chapter 5 5.1 Biodiversity • A healthy biosphere provides many services to humans and other organisms that live on Earth. • Natural processes provide drinking water that is safe for human use.

    9. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 5.2 Threats to Biodiversity Extinction Rates • The gradual process of species becoming extinct is known as background extinction. • Mass extinction is an event in which a large percentage of all living species become extinct in a relatively short period of time.

    10. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5

    11. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 5.2 Threats to Biodiversity

    12. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5

    13. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 5.2 Threats to Biodiversity Factors that Threaten Biodiversity • The current high rate of extinction is due to the activities of a single species—Homo sapiens. • Humans are changing conditions on Earth faster than new traits can evolve to cope with the new conditions.

    14. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 5.2 Threats to Biodiversity Overexploitation • Overexploitation, or excessive use, of species that have economic value is a factor increasing the current rate of extinction. • Bison • Passenger pigeons • Ocelot Rhinoceros • Rhinoceros Ocelot

    15. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 5.2 Threats to Biodiversity Habitat Loss • If a habitat is destroyed or disrupted, the native species might have to relocate or they will die. Destruction of Habitat • The destruction of habitat, such as the clearing of tropical rain forests, has a direct impact on global biodiversity.

    16. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 5.2 Threats to Biodiversity Disruption of Habitat • The declining population of one species can affect an entire ecosystem.

    17. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 5.2 Threats to Biodiversity Fragmentation of Habitat • The separation of an ecosystem into small pieces of land is called habitat fragmentation. • The smaller the parcel of land, the fewer species it can support. • Fragmentation reduces the opportunities for individuals in one area to reproduce with individuals from another area. • Carving the large ecosystem into small parcels increases the number of edges—creating edge effects.

    18. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 5.2 Threats to Biodiversity Pollution • Pollution and atmospheric changes threaten biodiversity and global stability. • Biological magnification is the increasing concentration of toxic substances in organisms as trophic levels increase in a food chain or food web.

    19. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 5.2 Threats to Biodiversity Acid Precipitation • Sulfur and nitrogen compounds react with water and other substances in the air to form sulfuric acid and nitric acid. • Acid precipitation removes calcium, potassium, and other nutrients from the soil, depriving plants of these nutrients. Assessing Water Quality

    20. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 5.2 Threats to Biodiversity Eutrophication • Eutrophication occurs when substances rich in nitrogen and phosphorus flow into waterways, causing extensive algae growth. • The algae use up the oxygen supply during their rapid growth and after their deaths during the decaying process. • Other organisms in the water suffocate.

    21. Nonnative species that are either intentionally or unintentionally transported to a new habitat are known as introduced species. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 5.2 Threats to Biodiversity Introduced Species • Introduced species often reproduce in large numbers because of a lack of predators, and become invasive species in their new habitat.

    22. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 5.3 Conserving Biodiversity Natural Resources • The consumption rate of natural resources is not evenly distributed.

    23. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 5.3 Conserving Biodiversity • Resources that are replaced by natural processes faster than they are consumed are called renewable resources. • Resources that are found on Earth in limited amounts or those that are replaced by natural processes over extremely long periods of time are called nonrenewable resources.

    24. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 5.3 Conserving Biodiversity • Sustainable use means using resources at a rate in which they can be replaced or recycled while preserving the long-term environmental health of the biosphere.

    25. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 5.3 Conserving Biodiversity Protecting Biodiversity • Currently, about seven percent of the world’s land is set aside as some type of reserve. • The United Nations supports a system of Biosphere Reserves and World Heritage sites.

    26. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 5.3 Conserving Biodiversity Biodiversity Hotspots • At least 1500 species of vascular plants are endemic. • The region must have lost at least 70 percent of its original habitat. • These hot spots originally covered 15.7 percent of Earth’s surface, however, only about a tenth of that habitat remains.

    27. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5

    28. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 5.3 Conserving Biodiversity Corridors Between Habitat Fragments • Improve the survival of biodiversity by providing corridors, or passageways, between habitat fragments • Creates a larger piece of land that can sustain a wider variety of species and a wider variety of genetic variation

    29. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 5.3 Conserving Biodiversity Restoring Ecosystems • The larger the affected area, the longer it takes for the biological community to recover.

    30. The use of living organisms, such as prokaryotes, fungi, or Biodiversity and Conservation plants, to detoxify a polluted area is called bioremediation. Chapter 5 5.3 Conserving Biodiversity Bioremediation

    31. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 5.3 Conserving Biodiversity Biological Augmentation • Adding natural predators to a degraded ecosystem is called biological augmentation. Ladybugs help control aphid populations. Photo courtesy of Nature’s Control

    32. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Chapter Resource Menu Chapter Diagnostic Questions Formative Test Questions Chapter Assessment Questions Standardized Test Practice biologygmh.com Glencoe Biology Transparencies Image Bank Vocabulary Animation Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding feature.

    33. A B C D Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 CDQ 1 Chapter Diagnostic Questions Which factor is most responsible for the lack of plants in polar regions? heavy grazing by herbivores little precipitation no soil for plants to take root not enough sunlight

    34. A B C D Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 CDQ 2 Chapter Diagnostic Questions What form of pollution is caused by extensive algae growth in waterways? acid precipitation eutrophication biological magnification edge effects

    35. A B C D Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 CDQ 3 Chapter Diagnostic Questions Which is not a renewable resource? solar energy fossil fuels agricultural plants clean water

    36. A B C D Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 FQ 1 5.1 Formative Questions Which has indirect economic value? ecosystems that decompose wastes organisms that provide food and shelter plants that contain medicinal substances species that have desirable genetic traits

    37. A B Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 FQ 2 5.1 Formative Questions It is likely that some of the world’s unidentified species will have economic value. true false

    38. A B C Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 FQ 3 5.1 Formative Questions When does the aesthetic value of an ecosystem become most apparent? when scientists begin to study the ecosystem when the ecosystem has been destroyed when the ecosystem is given economic value

    39. A B C D Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 FQ 4 5.2 Formative Questions Which describes the current rate of species disappearance? background extinction mass extinction natural extinction progressive extinction

    40. A B C D Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 FQ 5 5.2 Formative Questions Where are most extinctions likely to occur in the near future? deserts grasslands tropical forests temperate forests

    41. A B C D Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 FQ 6 5.2 Formative Questions What is the primary factor that has endangered the North American bison and the white rhinoceros? habitat loss eutrophication overexploitation nonnative predators

    42. A B C D Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 FQ 7 5.2 Formative Questions What is the number one cause of species extinction today? habitat loss human predators transported diseases background extermination

    43. A B C D Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 FQ 8 5.3 Formative Questions Which resource is nonrenewable? agricultural plants clean water forest timber mineral deposits

    44. A B C D Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 FQ 9 5.3 Formative Questions For which human activity is sustainable use not possible? farming logging oil drilling commercial fishing

    45. A B C D Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 FQ 10 5.3 Formative Questions Which is an example of bioremediation? replanting trees in an area affected by acid rain using microorganisms to detoxify an oil spill enacting a law that protects endangered amphibians introducing natural predators to control a crop pest

    46. A B C D Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 CAQ 1 Chapter Assessment Questions Look at the figure. Name the process that is occurring with the increasing concentration of DDT. pollution extinction biological magnification habitat fragmentation

    47. A B C D Biodiversity and Conservation 1–10 years 10–100 years 100–1000 years 1000 years or more Chapter 5 CAQ 2 Chapter Assessment Questions Use the graph to determine the approximate recovery time for a volcanic eruption.

    48. Biodiversity and Conservation Answer:Killer whales started to prey on sea otters instead of sea lions and harbor seals. Chapter 5 CAQ 3 Chapter Assessment Questions Explain how killer whales adapted to their environment when their primary food source began to disappear.

    49. A B C D Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 STP 1 Standardized Test Practice Which type of biodiversity increases as you move geographically from the polar regions to the equator? ecosystem diversity genetic diversity social diversity species diversity