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Albert Bandura’s. Social Cognitive Learning Theory: Self Efficacy Expectations. Bandra’s Childhood. Born on December 4, 1925 in Alberta, Canada Had 5 older sisters Parents emigrated to Canada from Poland and the Ukraine and worked hard to provide for their family

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albert bandura s

Albert Bandura’s

Social Cognitive Learning Theory:

Self Efficacy Expectations

bandra s childhood
Bandra’s Childhood
  • Born on December 4, 1925 in Alberta, Canada
  • Had 5 older sisters
  • Parents emigrated to Canada from Poland and the Ukraine and worked hard to provide for their family
  • Bandura said that life growing up was “a struggle” (one year, a drought forced Bandura’s family to feed their thatched roof to their cattle)

About 1934 (9 years old)

education and early adulthood
Education and Early Adulthood
  • Elementary and high school: his small town had only one school, with few teachers and resources.
  • As a result, Bandura took charge of his education from an early age.

Bandura on his education: The content of most textbooks is perishable, but the tools of self-directedness serve one over time.

from university student to grandfather
From University Student to Grandfather
  • Undergraduate student at the University of British Columbia
  • Intended to major in Biology; took a Psychology class to fill an open time slot, and he immediately knew that it was the career for him
  • M.A. and Ph.D. from University of Iowa
  • Married at 27 and had two daughters
  • At 28, joined faculty of Stanford
  • At age 82, still taught at Stanford in addition to spending time with his grandchildren

College graduation: 1949 (24 years old)

Bandura with his grandchildren in 1996

background bandura s social learning theory
Background: Bandura’s Social Learning Theory
  • In the 1960’s, Bandura developed his social learning theory.
    • In social settings, we learn through imitation
    • Through a cognitive process, we learn how to perform a new behavior and the probable consequences
  • In the 1980’s, Bandura began to develop his self-efficacy theory
bandura s theories
Bandura’s Theories
  • as opposed to Skinner, Bandura believes learning must include internal cognitive variables
  • believed in vicarious reinforcement
  • observational learning process
      • attentional
      • retention
      • motor reproduction
      • reinforcement and motivational
slide7
(cont.)
  • social learning process
    • aggression
      • Bobo doll experiment
        • aggression-rewarded
        • aggression-punished
        • no-consequences
      • Bobo doll-part two
        • after the child’s initial response, an experimenter came back into the room and told the child that they would get juice and a sticker if they could imitate anything else from the model
slide8
(cont.)
  • gender roles
    • within cultures, boys are taught “masculine” traits and girls are taught “feminine” traits
    • some gender traits can be attributed to genetics, but most is gained from imitation
    • children learn behaviors of both genders, but only perform behaviors appropriate to their own gender due to what has been reinforced
  • prosocial behavior
    • sharing, helping, cooperation
      • even a brief exposure to a generous model can lead to a permanent effect on sharing
      • parents’ preaching is not as influential as showing your children what to do
  • self-regulation
    • as people become more socialized, they rely less on external rewards and punishments and rely more on inner regulation of behavior
    • according to Bandura, children adopt the self-evaluative standards of peers rather than adults because it is easier to achieve the lower standards
slide9
(cont.)
  • self-efficacy
    • we evaluate our ongoing performances in terms of our standards
    • general judgments of our abilities are called self-efficacy appraisals
      • have strong effects on our motivations
      • perceived self-efficacy is what we believe we are good and bad at doing
      • having more optimistic self-efficacy, according to Bandura, is a good thing--allows us to face the challenges of life with some confidence
      • four sources of self-efficacy appraisals
        • actual performance
        • vicarious experiences
        • verbal persuasion (pep talks)
        • physiological cues
      • develops throughout our lives, from infancy to old age
      • our perceived self efficacy effects almost every aspect of our lives
what is self efficacy
What is self-efficacy?

Perceived self-efficacy is concerned not with the number of skills you have, but with what you believe you can do with what you have under a variety of circumstances.

Bandura, Albert. Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. USA: W.H. Freeman and Co, 1997.

Self-efficacy expectation:an individual’s judgment of his capability to organize and execute courses of action required to attain designated types of performances

the importance of efficacy beliefs
The Importance of Efficacy Beliefs
  • Skills + efficacy beliefs = effective functioning
  • Performance increases in proportion as perceived self-efficacy increases
  • “efficacy beliefs are based on cognitive processing of multiple sources of information” -Bandura, Albert. Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. USA: W.H. Freeman and Co, 1997.
four sources of self efficacy expectations in order of significance
Four Sources of Self-Efficacy Expectations (In order of significance)

1. Actual performance (also called mastery experience or performance accomplishments): our past personal experiences in the same type of activity or task. “I made it to the top of that mountain, so I can get to the top of this one, too.”

2. Vicarious experiences: Derived from watching others perform the same or similar actions. “If he can do it, I can do it.”

3. Verbal persuasion: Someone persuades us we can perform a task. “The teacher told me that if I study hard I can get an A on this test!”

4. Physiological cues (also called emotional arousal): Bodily cues. “My adrenaline is pumping- it’s going to be a great race.”

our project
Our Project
  • We will examine 3 of Bandura’s 4 self-efficacy factors to determine how effective they are
  • Our setting: Holy Family of Nazareth Catholic School
  • Participants: 5th and 6th graders
  • Their task: Predict how many free throws they will make (out of 10) before and after treatment
our hypothesis
Our Hypothesis
  • Actual performance will have the greatest influence on self-efficacy expectations (in agreement with Bandura)
  • The verbal persuasion will be more effective than the vicarious experience (disagreement with Bandura). Our example will be less effective because we are not in the children’s peer group.
  • Overall, the positive influences will outweigh the negative influences because 5th and 6th grade kids have a natural optimism and egocentrism.
procedure
Procedure
  • Application of Bandura’s self-efficacy theory to free throw shooting

We measured self-efficacy expectations by asking the kids to predict how many free throws they would make out of 10

results positive vicarious experience
Results: Positive Vicarious Experience

Average change after watching model: +.5

Average change between actual performance and 3rd prediction: + 1.25

Average change between 1st and 3rd prediction: 2

results negative vicarious experience
Results: Negative Vicarious Experience

Average change after watching model: -.4

Average change between actual performance and 3rd prediction: + .83

Average change between 1st and 3rd prediction: 2.4

results positive verbal persuasion
Results: Positive Verbal Persuasion

Average change after pep talk: +.75

Average change between actual performance and 3rd prediction: +2.25

Average change between 1st and 3rd prediction: .5

results negative verbal persuasion
Results: Negative Verbal Persuasion

Average change after negative talk: -.75

Average change between actual performance and 3rd prediction: +.5

Average change between 1st and 3rd prediction: 1

which factor actually has the most influence on children s self efficacy expectations
Which Factor Actually has the Most Influence on Children’s Self-Efficacy Expectations?
  • Positive Vicarious Experience Average change: +.5
  • Negative Vicarious Experience Average change: -.4 Average Change due to Vicarious Experience= .45
  • Positive Verbal Persuasion Average change: +.75
  • Negative Verbal Persuasion Average change: -.75 Average Change due to Verbal Persuasion= .75
  • Actual Performance- Average change: +1.25 +.83 +2.25 +.5 Average change due to Actual Performance= 1.21
the importance of building self efficacy in the classroom
The Importance of Building Self-Efficacy in the Classroom

Students who develop a strong sense of self-efficacy are well equipped to educate themselves when they have to rely on their own initiative.

- Albert Bandura

self efficacy and college students
Self-Efficacy and College Students

Beliefs concerning one’s capabilities are influential determinants of the vocational life paths that are chosen

- Bandura

other applications of bandura s theory
Other Applications of Bandura’s Theory
  • Bandura’s Self-Efficacy theory has also been used to help people:
    • Lose weight
    • Fight alcoholism
    • Overcome fears (e.g. of snakes)
    • Tackle depression and anxiety
    • Move up the corporate ladder
limitations repeat
Limitations/Repeat
  • Limitations of our research:
    • could not control the environment
      • were unable to observe the children separately, apart from their peers
      • as a result, the participant was distracted by peers
    • small pool of participants
  • If research were repeated :
    • wider range of ages
    • more isolated observation area