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Our class presentation HPC301 Influential Theorists in Child Development
Who did you research? • Erik Erikson – Danielle & Kate • Jean Piaget – Courtney & Jennifer • Sigmund Freud – Emma & Kristen • Maria Montessori – Sarah, Kaylea • Albert Bandura – Lisa, Kerryanne • J. Fraser Mustard – Leah & Courtney
Who will Mrs. Goulet look at? • Lawrence Kohlberg • B.F. Skinner • T. Berry Brazelton
Kate and Danielle Erik Erikson
About the Theorist • German psychologist and lecturer at Harvard and Yale Universities • Refined Sigmund Freud's stages of development • Famous for the phrase “identity crisis” • 8 stages: – emotional development task – wide range of influences on children's behavior
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Theory Advantages Disadvantages Every child develops at different stages and not all follow strict guidelines Nurture vs. Nature can change the stages that a child develops Biological differences between girls and boys More attention paid to younger generations • Serve as a good guideline • Good idea of emotional structure in children for parents • Good idea of personality structure in children for parents • Positive and negative attributes • Based off of our culture
By: Courtney Craig and Jennifer Murray Jean Piaget
His Theory • The study of the development of children's understanding, through observing them and talking and listening to them while they worked on exercises he set. • This theory is primarily known as the “Development Stage Theory”
Ages focused on in Piaget’s Theory • Piaget’s theory applied to people of all ages; stages; • Sensori Motor (Birth – 2yrs) • Pre- operational (2yrs – 7yrs) • Concrete operational (7yrs – 11yrs) • Formal operation 911yrs and up)
Aspect of Child Development • Piaget’s aspect of child development he studied was “Intellect” • Intellect is the ability of the mind to understand and comprehend knowledge
Advantages of the theory • Highly Supported world wide • Very influential • Important impact on education
Disadvantages of the theory • Piaget's whole work lacks scientific principles • Piaget's emphasis is on concepts of relationship.He does not investigate terms of concepts. • In his approach no direct teaching was involved • A child cannot engage in a difficult thought nor cannot perform any useful scientific activity.
Kristen and Emma Sigmund Freud
Description • Founder of modern psychiatry • Theorized that child experiences affect their adult hood • Believed sensory experiences associated with feeding and toilet-training affect personality
Who It Affects • Starts at birth • Continues throughout childhood • Affects adulthood
Aspect of Child Development • Age vs. personality development • How growing up affects the personality • How people around you affect personality
Sigmund Freud Theory Advantages disadvantages Many mis-diagnosed patients Society often classified the theory as sexist • Changed how people defined psychology • Sigmund Freud ‘s theory has been taken and redefined by many other theorists
Founder of Montessori Method Maria Montessori
Montessori Method • This method is characterized by emphasis on independence, respect for child’s natural psychological development and freedom of limits. She started to research philosophy methods in 1897. In 1907 she opened her first classroom in Rome called the Casa Dei Bambai or Children’s House. She would refer to her work as “scientific pedagogy.” Her theory is a model of human development and is an educational approach. She had two basic methods with children, and developing adults in psychological self-construction and children under the age of six have an innate path of psychological development. She believed that children act freely in an environment prepared.
Ages it applies to • This method applies to the ages from birth to 18 years old. E.g. Birth to three years, six to twelve, and twelve to eighteen. • Ages birth to three- She was testing all of their ability’s to see if something would change in their body as they got older. Also to see the different opportunities between them. • Ages six to twelve- Montessori used the term “cosmic education” to show both the universal scope and the idea that education in the second plane helped the child realize the human role in the functioning of the universe. • Ages twelve to eighteen- Education for these ages is less well developed. She did not establish a training program for this age group for teachers in her lifetime.
Aspect studied • Maria Montessori was basically making up a program for the psychological development of children’s minds. She was creating a method that would help them learn the roles of human development and society, something that would get there minds on the right track. She found a way to help children learn most things with mathematics, sciences and other more important things in the world. She would also have to test her theory out to see if it would work, and to see how a child's mind actually developed.
Advantages of Theory • Try and make a more enjoyable way for children to learn and keep them interested, teaching them manners, learning everything has there own place. Children’s minds are like sponges, they are always up to learn something new and absorb it all. Montessori also realized that every child learns at there own pace therefore different ways of learning and different paces. The environment provides a natural sense of discipline, the teacher plays a very good role in the classroom for the children.
Disadvantages ofTheory • Does not give kids enough free time to play, they do a lot of learning through play. She has been said to be to “rigid” and did not allow children to reach there creative potential.
Albert Bandura And Social Learning By Lisa Stewart and Kerryanne Wallace
The Theory . He believed that environment shapes behavior and vice versa . He believed that if a child sees another kid being rewarded it is as effective as being rewarded oneself . He believed that children learn by observing and modeling others
Age of people to which the theory applies . We think this theory applies to ages 2 to 5. . We think this is because Little kids look up to their parents and if they see them doing something wrong or right then they think it is ok
Aspect of child development • Albert Bandura was studying environment within children and parents
Advantages To The Theory • The advantages to this theory is that parents now know that they need to be careful of what their doing because their children are watching.
Disadvantages of the theory The disadvantages to this theory is that some parents don’t know how to set a good example towards their children
Brain Development J. Fraser Mustard
Description of theory • He believes that community support for early childhood development has important benefits for society.
Ages of people • The age that this theory applies to is children under the age of six.
Aspects of the child • He was studying the brain development for children under six and how support from the community on this benefits society.
Advantages • Advantages of this theory would be gaining more knowledge on younger children. • Having more support from the community. • Will benefit our society.
Disadvantages • Disadvantages of this theory would be that not everyone would necessarily benefit from it, depending on your outlook. • Some people in the community or in our society might not support this theory.
Mrs. Goulet Lawrence Kohlberg
Lawrence Kohlberg • Kohlberg believed that moral development occurs in stages • As a child’s intellect and social skills develop, they are able to better understand right and wrong.
Lawrence Kohlberg Stages • Stage 1 – Obey rules to avoid punishment • Stage 2 – Understand that there isn’t one way of looking at something. Is it OK to steal bread if is to feed your family? • Stage 3 – Around the teen age. Believe in living up to expectations of family. Good behaviour means his motives were good. A druggy who steals has bad motives (selfish)
Lawrence Kohlberg Stages • Stage 4 – Maintaining social order. Obeying laws, respecting authority, and performing one's dutie • Stage 5 - They begin to think about society in a very theoretical way, stepping back from their own society and considering the rights and values that a society ought to uphold • Stage 6 – Justice - respecting the basic dignity, of all people as individual
Ages • All ages – Each stage progresses as the child grows up. This goes into adulthood
Kohlberg – Moral Reasoning • The study of moral reasoning believes we are not born with a code of what is right and wrong.
Advantages • Good for parents to believe that moral reasoning can be developed and cultivated • This study was only conducted on boys and therefore cannot be universally applied Disadvantages
Mrs. Goulet B.F. Skinner
B.F. Skinner • Skinner believed that then environment influences behaviour • Children do things to either avoid punishment or to gain a reward • Children are passive in their own development • Ex. If a dog gets a pet or a treat for doing something he will likely do it again
Ages • I assume this applies to young children. See disadvantages.
Skinner – Behaviour theory • A scientific approach to explaining and predicting behaviour
Advantages • Great for raising a young child. • Helps us understand why “time out” works • Doesn’t take into account that a child has free will and will develop their own moral compass Disdvantages
Mrs. Goulet T. Berry Brazelton