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Chromosomes vs. Chromatin. Chromosomes Tightly packaged DNA Found only during cell division DNA is not being used for macromolecule synthesis. Chromatin Unwound DNA Found throughout Interphase DNA is being used for macromolecule synthesis. Gene Representations. Gene Representations.

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chromosomes vs chromatin
Chromosomes vs. Chromatin
  • Chromosomes
  • Tightly packaged DNA
  • Found only during cell division
  • DNA is not being used for macromolecule synthesis
  • Chromatin
  • Unwound DNA
  • Found throughout Interphase
  • DNA is being used for macromolecule synthesis
homologous chromosome pairs
Homologous Chromosome Pairs
  • Eucaryote chromosomes come in pairs (homologues)
  • Normal humans have 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs
  • One chromosome of each pair comes from an individual’s mother, the other comes from their father
  • Homologous Chromosomes (chromosome pairs) carry genes that control the same Characters, e.g., eye color, blood type, flower color, height, etc.
  • Homologous chromosomes have nearly identical structure, banding patterns, and nucleotide sequences
  • Locus: Physical site on chromosomes where given gene is located
  • Allele: Different forms of the same gene, e.g., A, B, or O blood-type alleles
autosomes sex chromosomes
Autosomes & Sex Chromosomes

Autosomes:Found in both males and females

  • In humans there are 22 pairs of autosomes
  • Autosomes that are the same size (& structure) are called homologues

Sex Chromosomes:Determine an individual’s gender

  • One pair of chromosomes (X and Y)
  • The X and Y chromosomes are not homologous
  • The X chromosome is much larger than the Y chromosome and contains many genes
  • The Y chromosome has only a small number of genes
  • In humans and other mammals females are XX and males are XY
sexual cycle animals
Sexual Cycle (Animals)

gamete

production

a.k.a., syngamy

development& repair of soma

sequestration

of germ line

variation in sexual cycles11
Variation in Sexual Cycles

Note  Replicating Haploid!

note 

Alternation of Generations!

variation via the sexual cycle
Variation via the Sexual Cycle

1. Crossing Over: After crossing over and synapsis, sister chromatids are no longer identical.

2. Independent Assortment: Each human can produce over 8.3 million different gametes by random shuffling of chromosomes in meiosis I

3. Fertilization: A couple can produce over 64 trillion (8.3 million x 8.3 million) different zygotes during fertilization. This figure does not take into account diversity created by crossing over

sexual cycle animals21
Sexual Cycle (Animals)

gamete

production



a.k.a., syngamy

development& repair of soma

sequestration

of germ line

probability theory ch 14 preview
Probability Theory (ch. 14 preview)
  • Statistical Independence
  • Range of Probabilities (0..1)
  • Law of Multiplication
  • Calculation for Events not Happening
  • The Law of Addition
acknowledgements
Acknowledgements

http://207.233.44.253/wms/reynolmj/lifesciences/lecturenote/bio3/Chap08.ppt

http://people.uncw.edu/pottsl/Bio%20110/Figures/UnitVIII.ppt

http://www.bbchs.k12.il.us/Teacher_Pages/Hammond/Powerpoint/Chapter_13.ppt

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