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TOOL TO DESIGN FOR CONSTRUCTION WORKER SAFETY. An Article Written by Gambatese, Hinze and Haas 1997. OUTLINE . Introduction Literature Review Research Methodology Results Conclusions Recommendations Q & A. INTRODUCTION. Escalating costs of workers’ compensation insurance

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tool to design for construction worker safety

TOOL TO DESIGN FOR CONSTRUCTION WORKER SAFETY

An Article Written by

Gambatese, Hinze and Haas

1997

outline
OUTLINE
  • Introduction
  • Literature Review
  • Research Methodology
  • Results
  • Conclusions
  • Recommendations
  • Q & A
introduction
INTRODUCTION
  • Escalating costs of workers’ compensation insurance
  • Rise in the number of liability (legal responsibility) suits
  • Intensification (increase) of safety regulations
  • Owners mandate addressing construction worker injuries
  • Project design has no effect on safety at that time
  • Designers lack of training to address worker safety
  • No knowledge in recognizing safety hazards
  • Design tool or aid to improve worker safety
  • CII focused (express the need) on creating computer a database of safety ideas and a design tool that help designers for safer construction
literature review
LITERATURE REVIEW
  • The role of designers was addressed on 1990 study (Hinze and Wiegand) based on questionnaire results
  • The study shows legal counsel has advised designers not to address safety in order to avoid any liabilities
  • The study revealed that only design-build firms who address safety hazards
  • Another study asked owners “Do you review the safety performance records of contractors before permitting them to submit bids on your projects?” the majority was affirmative (positive), where 52% (1991) 54%(1993) 57%(1994) which shows owners are increasing in safety interest
literature review cont
LITERATURE REVIEW, cont
  • In 1993 and 1994, owner studies were asked about the designers role as shown
research methodology
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Design suggestions:

  • All safety applicable suggestions to the design phase of any type and size of project were considered relevant
  • No design suggestions were discarded based on cost, schedule, or other design or construction performance criteria
  • Safety suggestions were taken from two resources:
    • Literature search
    • Interviews and written questionnaires with different construction industry personnel
research methodology cont
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, cont

Research also included steps to develop new design

suggestions by targeting three resources:

  • Companies safety design manuals
  • Worker safety manuals and checklists
  • Researchers and CII Design for Safety Research team members
research methodology cont1
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, cont

Incorporating such knowledge into multimedia computer

software design tool provides a number of advantages:

  • More efficient utilization of the tool by designers
  • The ability to frequent update the database
  • Easy management and control of the review process
  • Ability to incorporate analytical functions like (risk assessment and decision analysis)
research methodology cont2
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, cont

The following extensive requirements for the authoring tool were identified:

  • Graphic capabilities to help demonstrate key points
  • Multimedia support
  • Ability to support data structures for users records
  • A user friendly, mouse driven windows environment

Through independent industry evaluations of available authoring

tools, Asymetrix’s Multimedia Tool-Book was chosen for the

development of the design tool

results design suggestions
RESULTS (Design Suggestions)
  • 430 design suggestions were collected
  • Subsequently organized and input into the design tool database
results cont
RESULTS, cont
  • Personnel in architectural and consulting engineering firms were found not as knowledgeable concerning safety design suggestions
  • Construction industry’s interest and willingness
  • OSHA does not place any great responsibility for safety on designers
results cont1
RESULTS, cont

Most design suggestions reveals addressing both the structural

and architectural scopes of work

results cont2
RESULTS, cont

Suggestions can also be sorted according to project components,

construction hazards, and project systems that are affected.

results cont5
RESULTS, cont

Sample of recording safety suggestion:

Suggestion:

Do not allow schedules with sustained overtime

Purpose:

Workers will not be alert if overtime is maintained over a

sustained period.

Suggestion:

Rote piping lines that carry liquids below electrical cable trays.

Purpose:

Prevent the chance of electrical shock due to leaking pipes

Etc…

results design for construction safety toolbox
RESULTS (Design for Construction Safety ToolBox)

Mandatory Features and Functions:

  • A variety of approaches for reviewing a project
  • Identification of safety hazards
  • Presentation of suggestions to eliminate or reduce the likelihood of occurrence of hazards
  • Documentation and generation of the results into reports in usable format
  • The ability for other design suggestions to be input and saved within the tool for future references
conclusions
CONCLUSIONS
  • Owners interested on safe jobsites
  • High cost of accidents and injuries
  • Construction worker safety is expanding
  • Although this expanding but designer still behind, except for those working on design-build firm
  • Designers safety consideration will enhance project safety and reduce hazards and injuries.
  • Majority of design suggestions came from interviews
  • Workable software package is developed
  • This tool can be also used during startup, maintenance, decommissioning phases.
recommendations
RECOMMENDATIONS
  • Designers must be educated regarding construction worker safety
  • Owners must insist on applying such tool for safer projects
  • Future versions will be adding more suggestions
  • This tool can be also used on university
slide30
Q & A

Thank you