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Design for Construction Safety (DfCS) 2 to 4 Hour Course PowerPoint Presentation
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Design for Construction Safety (DfCS) 2 to 4 Hour Course

Design for Construction Safety (DfCS) 2 to 4 Hour Course

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Design for Construction Safety (DfCS) 2 to 4 Hour Course

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  1. Design for Construction Safety (DfCS)2 to 4 Hour Course

  2. WHAT IS DESIGNING FOR CONSTRUCTION SAFETY? The process of addressing construction site safety and health, and planning for future maintenance in the design phase of a project.

  3. WHY IS IT NECESSARY? • Currently there are no requirements for construction safety in building codes • IBC Chapter 33 Safeguards During Construction-Pedestrian Safety

  4. OSHA 1926-Engineering Controls • 1926.452 Scaffolds • 1926.502 Fall Protection Anchorages • 1926.552 Hoists • 1926.652 Excavations • 1926.703 Shoring • 1926.705 Lift Slabs

  5. Establish design for safety expectations • Include construction and operation perspective • Identify design for safety process and tools Design Kickoff Internal Review External Review Issue for Construction Design Trade contractor involvement • QA/QC • Cross-discipline review • Focused safety review • Owner review DfCS Process1-It’s a Team Concept 1 Gambatese

  6. U.S. Construction Accident Statistics1 • Nearly 200,000 serious injuries and 1,226 deaths each year • 5.5% of workforce but 21.5% of fatalities • Construction has one of the highest fatality rates of any industry sector 1Bureau of Labor Statistics-2006

  7. CONSTRUCTION ACCIDENTS IN U.S.1 1 Photos courtesy of Washington Group International

  8. CONSTRUCTION FATALITIES BY OCCUPATION1 • Total fatalities 1,226 • Construction laborers 360 • Electricians 117 • Carpenters 114 • First Line supervisors 113 • Roofers 82 • Painters and paper hangers 54 • Structural steel 36 1 BLS,2006

  9. MOST FREQUENTLY CITED/HIGHEST PENALTY OSHA VIOLATIONS IN CONSTRUCTION1 • Scaffolding 29 CFR 1926.451 • Fall Protection 29 CFR 1926.501 • Ladders 29 CFR 1926.1053 • Excavations 29 CFR 1926.651 • Aerial Lifts 29 CFR 1926.453 1Most Frequently Cited Standards 2005

  10. Considering Safety During Design Offers the Most Payoff1 High ConceptualDesign Detailed Engineering Ability to Influence Safety Procurement Construction Start-up Low Project Schedule 1 Szymberski 1987

  11. DESIGN CAN INFLUENCE CONSTRUCTION SAFETY11,2 • 22% of 226 injuries that occurred from 2000-2002 in Oregon, WA and CA linked to design • 42% of 224 fatalities in US between 1990-2003 linked to design • In Europe, a 1991 study concluded that 60% of fatal accidents resulted from decisions made before site work began 1 Behm, “Linking Construction Fatalities to the Design for Construction Safety Concept”, 2005 2 European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions

  12. What Types of Design Decisions? • IBC paragraph 704.11.1 requires that a parapet wall be at least 30 inches high • OSHA 1926 Subpart M requires a 39-45 inch guardrail or other fall protection • If the design professional specifies a 39-45 inch high parapet wall, fall protection would not be required

  13. DfCS Examples:Roofs Upper story windows and roof parapets Skylights

  14. COURSE OBJECTIVES • To provide design and construction professionals with skills to identify construction safety hazards • To provide design and construction professionals with skills to eliminate or reduce the risk of a serious injury in the design phase

  15. COURSE OBJECTIVES • Safety Engineering-skills to recognize hazards and uncover “hidden” hazards • Design features to eliminate or reduce the risk of an injury due to a hazard • OSHA resources for DfCS

  16. Crash Course in Safety Engineering • Safety Engineering is a specialty within the engineering field that deals with the identification and elimination of hazards. • Safety Engineering cuts across all engineering disciplines: Civil, Mechanical, Chemical, Electrical, as well as many branches of science.

  17. What is a Hazard? • A HAZARD is the potential to do harm or damage • RISK is a measure of the probability of a hazard-related incident occurring and the severity of harm or damage

  18. Recognized Hazards • Gravity-Falls from elevation Falling objects • Slopes-Upset Rollover Unstable surfaces • Water- Drowning

  19. Recognized Hazards • Walking/working surfaces- tripping, slipping • Mechanical hazards- Rotation, reciprocation, shearing, vibration, pinch points, hydraulics, pneumatics, entanglement

  20. Recognized Hazards • Stored energy- springs, pneumatics hydraulics, capacitors • Electrical-electrostatic, current, voltage, sparks, arcs • Chemical-corrosive, combustion, toxic

  21. Recognized Hazards • Biological-allergens, carcinogens • Radiant Energy-sound, nuclear, X-rays, light, lasers

  22. Recognized Hazards-SourcesANSI Standards • ANSI Z49.1 Safety in Welding and Cutting • ANSI Z117.1 Safety Requirements for Confined Spaces • ANSI D6.1 Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices • ANSI 10.8 Safety Requirements for Scaffolding • ANSI 14.2 Safety Requirements for Portable Ladders

  23. Recognized Hazards-SourcesANSI Standards • ANSI Z93.1 Fire Hazards in Oxygen Enriched Atmospheres • ANSI A14.4 Job Made Wooden Ladders • ANSI A10.6-Safety Requirements for Demolition Operations • ANSI A1264.1-Safety Requirements for Workplace Floor and Wall Openings, Stairs & Railing Systems

  24. Recognized Hazards-SourcesANSI Standards • ANSI A10.13 Safety Requirements for Steel erection • ANSI A145.1 Recommended Practice for Concrete Formwork • ANSI Z244.1 Lockout/Tagout of Energy Sources

  25. Recognized Hazards-SourcesASTM Standards • ASTM F802 Guide for Selection of Certain Walkway Surfaces When Considering Footwear Traffic • ASTM 04.09 Wood Construction • ASTM D4532 Respirable Dust in Workplace Atmospheres • ASTM STP 1150 Fire Hazard and Fire Risk Assessment

  26. Recognized Hazards-SourcesASTM Standards • ASTM O 4.07 Building Seals and Sealants

  27. Recognized Hazards-SourcesNFPA Standards • NFPA Volume 13, 53M Fire Hazards in Oxygen Enriched Atmospheres • NFPA 654 Prevention of Fire and Dust Explosions in the Chemical, Dye, Pharmaceutical, and Plastics Industries • NFPA 241 Safeguarding Construction, Alteration, and Demolition Operations

  28. Recognized Hazards-SourcesGovernment Regulations • OSHA 1926.550 Cranes and derricks • OSHA 1926.251 Rigging Material for Material Handling • OSHA 1926.452 Scaffolds • OSHA 1926.800 Underground Construction • OSHA 1926.52 Occupational Noise Exposure

  29. Recognized Hazards-SourcesNFPA Standards • NFPA 30 Flammable and Combustible Liquids • NFPA 325M Fire Hazard Properties of Flammable Liquids, Gases & Volatile Solids

  30. Recognized Hazards-SourcesGovernment Regulations • OSHA 1918.95 Longshoring Operations in the Vicinity of Repair and Maintenance Work • OSHA 1926.1050-1053 Stairways and Ladders • OSHA 1926.650 Excavations • Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations

  31. Recognized Hazards-SourcesOther Sources • National Safety Council • MSHA • SAE • NIOSH • US Army Corps of Engineers • ACI

  32. Recognized Hazards-ExamplesFall Hazards 6 Feet or More1 1Photos courtesy of Washington Group International Unprotected edges

  33. Recognized Hazards-ExamplesConfined Space

  34. Worker electrocuted when his drill rig got too close to overhead power lines. Design engineer specified groundwater monitoring wells were to be dug directly under power lines. Engineer could have specified wells be dug away from power lines and/or better informed the employer of hazard posed by wells’ proximity to powerlines through the plans, specifications, and bid documents. Recognized Hazards-ExamplesPower Lines

  35. Hidden Hazards-Examples • Underground utilities • Electrical wire buried in a wall • Asbestos • Rot/Decay of structural members • Gas lines • Any hazard uncovered during project execution

  36. Hidden Hazards-”What If” Analysis • A “What If” analysis is a structured brainstorming methods of uncovering hidden hazards • Select the boundaries of the review and assemble an experienced team • Gather information-video tapes of operation, design documents, maintenance procedures, etc.

  37. Hidden Hazards-”What If” Analysis“What If” Situation Questions • Failure to follow procedures • Procedures are followed, but are incorrect • Equipment failure • Utility failure • Weather • Operator not trained

  38. Hidden Hazards-”What If” Analysis Example Highway Construction Project- • What if workers have to access drains? Are drains a possible confined space? • What about the power lines? Will equipment be operating near power lines? • What about worker/public injury from traffic accidents? Do trucks have enough turning space? Is there signage/barriers to re-direct pedestrians? • Will construction vehicles have enough shoulder space to stop on road • What if worker attempts to manually pick up drain covers? Are they lightweight? Do they have handles?

  39. Hidden Hazards-Other Methods • Fault Tree Analysis • Design Check Lists • Plan review, if your gut feeling tells you that something is unsafe, it probably is. • Read case studies on construction accidents • “Fatal Facts”

  40. Fatal Facts

  41. Fatal Facts

  42. Fatal Facts

  43. Fatal Facts

  44. Fatal Facts

  45. Design for Safety (DFS) • Identify the hazard(s) • Assess the Risk • Propose design features to eliminate the risk or reduce it to an acceptable level

  46. DFS- Risk AssessmentEstimate Injury Severity Severe-Death or serious debilitating long-term injury such as amputation or coma Serious-Permanent or nonreversible injury that severely impact enjoyment of life and may require continued treatment

  47. DFS- Risk AssessmentEstimate Injury Severity Moderate-Permanent or reversible minor injury that does not significantly impact enjoyment of life, but requires medical treatment. Slight-Reversible injury requiring simple medical treatment with no confinement

  48. DFS- Risk AssessmentEstimate Probability of Hazardous Event High- Very likely to occur, protective measures are nearly worthless Medium-Occurrence is likely. The frequency of control measures is significant or control measures are inadequate

  49. DFS- Risk AssessmentEstimate Probability of Hazardous Event Moderate-Occurrence is possible, but not likely Low- Occurrence is so unlikely as to be considered nearly zero.

  50. DFS-Risk Assessment Matrix Severity ProbabilitySevereSeriousModerateSlight High High High Medium Low Medium High Medium Low Low Moderate Medium Low Low Negligible Low Low Low Negligible Negligible