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Design for Construction Safety (DfCS) 2 to 4 Hour Course . WHAT IS DESIGNING FOR CONSTRUCTION SAFETY? . The process of addressing construction site safety and health, and planning for future maintenance in the design phase of a project. WHY IS IT NECESSARY?.

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what is designing for construction safety
WHAT IS DESIGNING FOR CONSTRUCTION SAFETY?

The process of addressing construction site safety and health, and planning for future maintenance in the design phase of a project.

why is it necessary
WHY IS IT NECESSARY?
  • Currently there are no requirements for construction safety in building codes
  • IBC Chapter 33 Safeguards During Construction-Pedestrian Safety
osha 1926 engineering controls
OSHA 1926-Engineering Controls
  • 1926.452 Scaffolds
  • 1926.502 Fall Protection Anchorages
  • 1926.552 Hoists
  • 1926.652 Excavations
  • 1926.703 Shoring
  • 1926.705 Lift Slabs
dfcs process 1 it s a team concept

Establish design for safety expectations

  • Include construction and operation perspective
  • Identify design for safety process and tools

Design Kickoff

Internal Review

External Review

Issue for Construction

Design

Trade contractor involvement

  • QA/QC
  • Cross-discipline review
  • Focused safety review
  • Owner review
DfCS Process1-It’s a Team Concept

1 Gambatese

u s construction accident statistics 1
U.S. Construction Accident Statistics1
  • Nearly 200,000 serious injuries and 1,226 deaths each year
  • 5.5% of workforce but 21.5% of fatalities
  • Construction has one of the highest fatality rates of any industry sector

1Bureau of Labor Statistics-2006

construction accidents in u s 1
CONSTRUCTION ACCIDENTS IN U.S.1

1 Photos courtesy of Washington Group International

construction fatalities by occupation 1
CONSTRUCTION FATALITIES BY OCCUPATION1
  • Total fatalities 1,226
  • Construction laborers 360
  • Electricians 117
  • Carpenters 114
  • First Line supervisors 113
  • Roofers 82
  • Painters and paper hangers 54
  • Structural steel 36

1 BLS,2006

most frequently cited highest penalty osha violations in construction 1
MOST FREQUENTLY CITED/HIGHEST PENALTY OSHA VIOLATIONS IN CONSTRUCTION1
  • Scaffolding 29 CFR 1926.451
  • Fall Protection 29 CFR 1926.501
  • Ladders 29 CFR 1926.1053
  • Excavations 29 CFR 1926.651
  • Aerial Lifts 29 CFR 1926.453

1Most Frequently Cited Standards 2005 www.osha.gov

considering safety during design offers the most payoff 1
Considering Safety During Design Offers the Most Payoff1

High

ConceptualDesign

Detailed Engineering

Ability to Influence Safety

Procurement

Construction

Start-up

Low

Project Schedule

1 Szymberski 1987

design can influence construction safety1 1 2
DESIGN CAN INFLUENCE CONSTRUCTION SAFETY11,2
  • 22% of 226 injuries that occurred from 2000-2002 in Oregon, WA and CA linked to design
  • 42% of 224 fatalities in US between 1990-2003 linked to design
  • In Europe, a 1991 study concluded that 60% of fatal accidents resulted from decisions made before site work began

1 Behm, “Linking Construction Fatalities to the Design for Construction Safety Concept”, 2005

2 European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions

what types of design decisions
What Types of Design Decisions?
  • IBC paragraph 704.11.1 requires that a parapet wall be at least 30 inches high
  • OSHA 1926 Subpart M requires a 39-45 inch guardrail or other fall protection
  • If the design professional specifies a 39-45 inch high parapet wall, fall protection would not be required
dfcs examples roofs
DfCS Examples:Roofs

Upper story windows and roof parapets

Skylights

course objectives
COURSE OBJECTIVES
  • To provide design and construction professionals with skills to identify construction safety hazards
  • To provide design and construction

professionals with skills to eliminate or reduce the risk of a serious injury in the design phase

course objectives15
COURSE OBJECTIVES
  • Safety Engineering-skills to recognize hazards and uncover “hidden” hazards
  • Design features to eliminate or reduce the risk of an injury due to a hazard
  • OSHA resources for DfCS
crash course in safety engineering
Crash Course in Safety Engineering
  • Safety Engineering is a specialty within the engineering field that deals with the identification and elimination of hazards.
  • Safety Engineering cuts across all engineering disciplines: Civil, Mechanical, Chemical, Electrical, as well as many branches of science.
what is a hazard
What is a Hazard?
  • A HAZARD is the potential to do harm or damage
  • RISK is a measure of the probability of a hazard-related incident occurring and the severity of harm or damage
recognized hazards
Recognized Hazards
  • Gravity-Falls from elevation

Falling objects

  • Slopes-Upset

Rollover

Unstable surfaces

  • Water- Drowning
recognized hazards19
Recognized Hazards
  • Walking/working surfaces-

tripping, slipping

  • Mechanical hazards-

Rotation, reciprocation, shearing,

vibration, pinch points, hydraulics,

pneumatics, entanglement

recognized hazards20
Recognized Hazards
  • Stored energy- springs, pneumatics

hydraulics, capacitors

  • Electrical-electrostatic, current, voltage, sparks, arcs
  • Chemical-corrosive, combustion, toxic
recognized hazards21
Recognized Hazards
  • Biological-allergens, carcinogens
  • Radiant Energy-sound, nuclear,

X-rays, light, lasers

recognized hazards sources ansi standards
Recognized Hazards-SourcesANSI Standards
  • ANSI Z49.1 Safety in Welding and Cutting
  • ANSI Z117.1 Safety Requirements for Confined Spaces
  • ANSI D6.1 Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices
  • ANSI 10.8 Safety Requirements for Scaffolding
  • ANSI 14.2 Safety Requirements for

Portable Ladders

recognized hazards sources ansi standards23
Recognized Hazards-SourcesANSI Standards
  • ANSI Z93.1 Fire Hazards in Oxygen

Enriched Atmospheres

  • ANSI A14.4 Job Made Wooden Ladders
  • ANSI A10.6-Safety Requirements for Demolition Operations
  • ANSI A1264.1-Safety Requirements for Workplace Floor and Wall Openings, Stairs & Railing Systems
recognized hazards sources ansi standards24
Recognized Hazards-SourcesANSI Standards
  • ANSI A10.13 Safety Requirements for Steel erection
  • ANSI A145.1 Recommended Practice for Concrete Formwork
  • ANSI Z244.1 Lockout/Tagout of Energy Sources
recognized hazards sources astm standards
Recognized Hazards-SourcesASTM Standards
  • ASTM F802 Guide for Selection of Certain Walkway Surfaces When Considering Footwear Traffic
  • ASTM 04.09 Wood Construction
  • ASTM D4532 Respirable Dust in Workplace Atmospheres
  • ASTM STP 1150 Fire Hazard and Fire Risk Assessment
recognized hazards sources astm standards26
Recognized Hazards-SourcesASTM Standards
  • ASTM O 4.07 Building Seals and Sealants
recognized hazards sources nfpa standards
Recognized Hazards-SourcesNFPA Standards
  • NFPA Volume 13, 53M Fire Hazards in Oxygen Enriched Atmospheres
  • NFPA 654 Prevention of Fire and Dust Explosions in the Chemical, Dye, Pharmaceutical, and Plastics Industries
  • NFPA 241 Safeguarding Construction, Alteration, and Demolition Operations
recognized hazards sources government regulations
Recognized Hazards-SourcesGovernment Regulations
  • OSHA 1926.550 Cranes and derricks
  • OSHA 1926.251 Rigging Material for Material Handling
  • OSHA 1926.452 Scaffolds
  • OSHA 1926.800 Underground Construction
  • OSHA 1926.52 Occupational Noise Exposure
recognized hazards sources nfpa standards29
Recognized Hazards-SourcesNFPA Standards
  • NFPA 30 Flammable and Combustible Liquids
  • NFPA 325M Fire Hazard Properties of Flammable Liquids, Gases & Volatile Solids
recognized hazards sources government regulations30
Recognized Hazards-SourcesGovernment Regulations
  • OSHA 1918.95 Longshoring Operations in the Vicinity of Repair and Maintenance Work
  • OSHA 1926.1050-1053 Stairways and Ladders
  • OSHA 1926.650 Excavations
  • Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations
recognized hazards sources other sources
Recognized Hazards-SourcesOther Sources
  • National Safety Council
  • MSHA
  • SAE
  • NIOSH
  • US Army Corps of Engineers
  • ACI
recognized hazards examples fall hazards 6 feet or more 1
Recognized Hazards-ExamplesFall Hazards 6 Feet or More1

1Photos courtesy of Washington Group International

Unprotected edges

recognized hazards examples power lines
Worker electrocuted when his drill rig got too close to overhead power lines.

Design engineer specified groundwater monitoring wells were to be dug directly under power lines.

Engineer could have specified wells be dug away from power lines and/or better informed the employer of hazard posed by wells’ proximity to powerlines through the plans, specifications, and bid documents.

Recognized Hazards-ExamplesPower Lines
hidden hazards examples
Hidden Hazards-Examples
  • Underground utilities
  • Electrical wire buried in a wall
  • Asbestos
  • Rot/Decay of structural members
  • Gas lines
  • Any hazard uncovered during project execution
hidden hazards what if analysis
Hidden Hazards-”What If” Analysis
  • A “What If” analysis is a structured brainstorming methods of uncovering hidden hazards
  • Select the boundaries of the review

and assemble an experienced team

  • Gather information-video tapes of operation, design documents, maintenance procedures, etc.
hidden hazards what if analysis what if situation questions
Hidden Hazards-”What If” Analysis“What If” Situation Questions
  • Failure to follow procedures
  • Procedures are followed, but are incorrect
  • Equipment failure
  • Utility failure
  • Weather
  • Operator not trained
hidden hazards what if analysis example
Hidden Hazards-”What If” Analysis Example

Highway Construction Project-

  • What if workers have to access drains? Are drains a possible confined space?
  • What about the power lines? Will equipment be operating near power lines?
  • What about worker/public injury from traffic accidents? Do trucks have enough turning space? Is there signage/barriers to re-direct pedestrians?
  • Will construction vehicles have enough shoulder space to stop on road
  • What if worker attempts to manually pick up drain covers? Are they lightweight? Do they have handles?
hidden hazards other methods
Hidden Hazards-Other Methods
  • Fault Tree Analysis
  • Design Check Lists
  • Plan review, if your gut feeling tells you that something is unsafe, it probably is.
  • Read case studies on construction accidents
  • “Fatal Facts”
design for safety dfs
Design for Safety (DFS)
  • Identify the hazard(s)
  • Assess the Risk
  • Propose design features to eliminate the risk or reduce it to an acceptable level
dfs risk assessment estimate injury severity
DFS- Risk AssessmentEstimate Injury Severity

Severe-Death or serious debilitating long-term injury such as amputation or coma

Serious-Permanent or nonreversible injury that severely impact enjoyment of life and may require continued treatment

dfs risk assessment estimate injury severity47
DFS- Risk AssessmentEstimate Injury Severity

Moderate-Permanent or reversible minor injury that does not significantly impact enjoyment of life, but requires medical treatment.

Slight-Reversible injury requiring simple medical treatment with no confinement

dfs risk assessment estimate probability of hazardous event
DFS- Risk AssessmentEstimate Probability of Hazardous Event

High- Very likely to occur, protective measures are nearly worthless

Medium-Occurrence is likely. The frequency of control measures is significant or control measures are inadequate

dfs risk assessment estimate probability of hazardous event49
DFS- Risk AssessmentEstimate Probability of Hazardous Event

Moderate-Occurrence is possible, but not likely

Low- Occurrence is so unlikely as to be considered nearly zero.

dfs risk assessment matrix
DFS-Risk Assessment Matrix

Severity

ProbabilitySevereSeriousModerateSlight

High High High Medium Low

Medium High Medium Low Low

Moderate Medium Low Low Negligible

Low Low Low Negligible Negligible

other forms of hazard identification prevention matrix 1

Eliminate the Hazard

Guard the Hazard

Provide a Safety Factor

Provide Redundancy

Provide Reliability

Hazard

Safety

Hazard

Safety

Hazard

Safety

Hazard

Safety

Natural

Structural/

Mechanical

Electrical

Chemical

Radiant Energy

Biological

Artificial Intelligence

Other Forms of Hazard Identification/Prevention Matrix1

1Hazard Information Foundation, Inc.

dfs design hierarchy
DFS-Design Hierarchy
  • First-Design out the hazard
  • Second-Provide safety devices
  • Third-Provide warning devices
  • Fourth- Implement operating procedures and training programs
  • Fifth-Use personal protective equipment
slide53
END OF CRASH COURSE

IN SAFETY

ENGINEERING

typical construction project arrangement
Typical Construction Project Arrangement
  • Project owner separately contracts with a Architect/Engineer and with a general contractor, prime contractor, construction manager, program manager or owner’s agent
  • Above entities may subcontract out some or all of the work to specialty trade contractors
  • Project owners occasionally contract with a design-build firm to perform both design and construction
root causes for construction accidents 1
Root Causes for Construction Accidents1
  • Inadequate construction planning
  • Lack of proper training
  • Deficient enforcement of training
  • Unsafe equipment
  • Unsafe methods or sequencing
  • Unsafe site conditions
  • Not using safety equipment that was provided

1 Toole, “Construction Site Safety Roles”, 2002

potential areas of concern in construction safety
Potential Areas of Concern in Construction Safety
  • Falls
  • Hazardous materials
  • Fire Protection
  • Electrical
  • Scaffolding
  • Floor and wall openings, stairways, ladders
potential areas of concern in construction safety57
Potential Areas of Concern in Construction Safety
  • Cranes, derricks, hoists
  • Material handling and storage
  • Excavating and trenching
  • Confined Space
  • Work Zone
potential areas of concern in construction safety58
Potential Areas of Concern in Construction Safety
  • Trade specific

Steel workers

Electrical

HVAC

Plumbing

Excavators

Concrete

designing for construction safety dfcs what is it
Designing for Construction Safety (DfCS) – What is it?
  • An extension of DfS to coverconstruction projects
  • Recognizes construction site safety as a design criterion
  • The process of addressing construction site safety and health in the design of a project
designing for construction safety process 1
Designing for Construction Safety Process1

1Gambatese

Prelim. Design Review

30% Review

60% Review

Planning

Review

90% Review

Planning

Preliminary

design/

Schematics

Design

Construction

Operation

and

Maintenance

dfcs examples prefabrication
DfCS Examples: Prefabrication

Concrete Wall Panels

Concrete Segmented Bridge

Steel stairs

dfcs examples roofs63
DfCS Examples:Roofs

Upper story windows and roof parapets

Skylights

dfcs examples stee l design
DfCS Examples: Steel Design
  • Avoid hanging connections; design to bear on columns instead using safety seats
  • Require holes in columns for tie lines 21” and 42” above each floor slab
  • Specify shop welded connections instead of bolts or field welds to avoid dangerous positions during erection
  • Consider approximate dimensions of connection tools to prevent pinches or awkward assemblies

National Institute of Steel Detailing and Steel Erectors Association of America. Detailing Guide for the Enhancement of Erection Safety. 2001

other dfcs design examples
Other DfCS Design Examples
  • Design underground utilities to be placed using trenchless technology1
  • Specify primers, sealers and other coatings that do not emit noxious fumes or contain carcinogenic products2
  • Design cable type lifeline system for storage towers3

1Weinstein, “Can Design Improve Construction Safety”, 2005

2 Gambatese, “Viability of Designing for Construction Worker Safety”, 2005

3Behm, “Linking Construction Fatalities to the Design for Construction Safety Concept”, 2005

case study 1 circulator pumps68
CASE STUDY #1-CIRCULATOR PUMPS
  • Replacing circulator pumps requires a ladder,pumps are located in a tight space.
  • Maintenance worker could fall off ladder, drop pump, or suffer hand injury from hitting adjacent piping
case study 1 circulator pumps69
CASE STUDY #1-CIRCULATOR PUMPS

Design review questions-

Is there enough room to replace the pumps?

How high off the ground are the pumps?

What if a maintenance worker has to shut off a valve an emergency?

case study 1 circulator pumps70
CASE STUDY #1-CIRCULATOR PUMPS

Identify Hazard-

Fall and mechanical

case study 1 circulator pumps71
CASE STUDY #1-CIRCULATOR PUMPS

Assess Risk-

severity- slight (knuckles) to serious

(head injury)

probability-medium (likely)

risk- low to medium

Additional consideration- solution is simple and inexpensive

case study 1 circulator pumps72
CASE STUDY #1-CIRCULATOR PUMPS

Severity

ProbabilitySevereSeriousModerateSlight

High High High Medium Low

Medium High Medium Low Low

Moderate Medium Low Low Negligible

Low Low Low Negligible Negligible

case study 1 circulator pumps73
CASE STUDY #1-CIRCULATOR PUMPS

DfCS solution: design pumps close to ground level so that a ladder is not required, provide adequate space around pumps, provide a metal identification tag for each valve and provide a permanent identification board in the mechanical room that identifies each valve and it’s purpose.

case study 2 installation maintenance of hvac system attic
CASE STUDY #2-INSTALLATION\MAINTENANCE OF HVAC SYSTEM (ATTIC)
  • HVAC System installed in the attic of a commercial office building
  • No floor or platform/walkways were designed or installed
  • HVAC technicians had to walk on joists/trusses
case study 2 installation maintenance of hvac system attic76
CASE STUDY #2-INSTALLATION\MAINTENANCE OF HVAC SYSTEM (ATTIC)

Design review questions

What will workers stand on when installing HVAC system?

Will regular maintenance be required?

What will the maintenance workers stand on?

What are the pertinent OSHA regulations?

case study 2 installation maintenance of hvac system attic78
CASE STUDY #2-INSTALLATION\MAINTENANCE OF HVAC SYSTEM (ATTIC)

Design review questions

What will workers stand on when installing HVAC system?

Will regular maintenance be required?

What will the maintenance workers stand on?

What are the pertinent OSHA regulations?

case study 2 installation maintenance of hvac system attic80
CASE STUDY #2-INSTALLATION\MAINTENANCE OF HVAC SYSTEM (ATTIC)

Assess Risk-

severity- serious (knee) to severe

(death)

probability-medium (likely)

risk- medium to high

case study 2 installation maintenance of hvac system attic81
CASE STUDY #2-INSTALLATION\MAINTENANCE OF HVAC SYSTEM (ATTIC)

Severity

ProbabilitySevereSeriousModerateSlight

High High High Medium Low

Medium High Medium Low Low

Moderate Medium Low Low Negligible

Low Low Low Negligible Negligible

case study 2 installation maintenance of hvac system attic82
CASE STUDY #2-INSTALLATION\MAINTENANCE OF HVAC SYSTEM (ATTIC)

DfCS solution: design permanent platforms and walkways with guardrails

case study 3 raw coal reclaim facility 1
CASE STUDY #3-RAW COAL RECLAIM FACILITY1
  • Plant utility worker was fatally injured while performing clean-up duties at a raw coal reclaim area
  • Victim either fell through a 56” x 80” opening in a platform or entered through a coal feeder opening

1Case study courtesy of Washington Group International

case study 3 raw coal reclaim facility
CASE STUDY #3-RAW COAL RECLAIM FACILITY

Design review questions-

Will workers need to have access to conveyors?

Are covers and/or guardrails provided for all openings near or over conveyors?

Are covers and/or guardrail gates interlocked?

case study 3 raw coal reclaim facility86
CASE STUDY #3-RAW COAL RECLAIM FACILITY

Identify hazard

Mechanical

case study 3 raw coal reclaim facility87
CASE STUDY #3-RAW COAL RECLAIM FACILITY

Assess Risk-

severity- severe (death)

probability-medium to high

risk- high

case study 3 raw coal reclaim facility88
CASE STUDY #3-RAW COAL RECLAIM FACILITY

Severity

ProbabilitySevereSeriousModerateSlight

High High High Medium Low

Medium High Medium Low Low

Moderate Medium Low Low Negligible

Low Low Low Negligible Negligible

case study 3 raw coal reclaim facility89
CASE STUDY #3-RAW COAL RECLAIM FACILITY

DfCS solution: design covers and/or guardrails over conveyor belts and opening to conveyor belts. Design interlocks for covers and gates.

case study 4 blind penetration into concrete 1
CASE STUDY #4-BLIND PENETRATION INTO CONCRETE1

A construction worker penetrated an embedded electrical conduit containing an energized 120-volt line while hand drilling into a concrete bean to install pipe hanger inserts. The conduit was 1 inch from the surface.

1 Dept. of Energy Blind Penetration Incidents

case study 4 blind penetration into concrete
CASE STUDY #4-BLIND PENETRATION INTO CONCRETE

Design review questions

How will the worker install the pipe hangers?

Are there any electrical lines in the concrete beam?

Are there any pipe hangers that will be near an electrical line?

case study 4 blind penetration into concrete92
CASE STUDY #4-BLIND PENETRATION INTO CONCRETE

Assess Risk-

severity- severe (death)

probability- moderate to medium

risk- medium to high

case study 4 blind penetration into concrete93
CASE STUDY #4-BLIND PENETRATION INTO CONCRETE

Severity

ProbabilitySevereSeriousModerateSlight

High High High Medium Low

Medium High Medium Low Low

ModerateMedium Low Low Negligible

Low Low Low Negligible Negligible

case study 4 blind penetration into concrete94
CASE STUDY #4-BLIND PENETRATION INTO CONCRETE

DfCS Solution: Design embedded electrical lines deeper than the maximum depth of the pipe hanger bolts, clearly mark locations of electrical lines on contract drawings

case study 5 incinerator cleanout 1
CASE STUDY #5-INCINERATOR CLEANOUT1
  • An incinerator located adjacent to a main catwalk on 4th floor
  • There was no catwalk from the main catwalk to the incinerator
  • Workers periodically had to go into incinerator to clean
  • Workers used make shift planking to from main catwalk to incinerator

1Note the catwalk from the main catwalk to the incinerator with the yellow guardrails was not in place at the time the worker fell.

case study 5 incinerator cleanout98
CASE STUDY #5-INCINERATOR CLEANOUT

Design review questions..

Will regular maintenance be required?

How will the workers gain access to the incinerator

What are the pertinent OSHA regulations?

case study 5 incinerator cleanout100
CASE STUDY #5-INCINERATOR CLEANOUT

Assess Risk-

severity- severe (death)

probability-medium (likely) to high (very likely)

risk- high

case study incinerator cleanout
CASE STUDY #-INCINERATOR CLEANOUT

Severity

ProbabilitySevereSeriousModerateSlight

High High High Medium Low

Medium HighMedium Low Low

Moderate Medium Low Low Negligible

Low Low Low Negligible Negligible

case study 5 incinerator cleanout102
CASE STUDY #5-INCINERATOR CLEANOUT

DfCS solution: design catwalk with guardrail and toeboards from main catwalk to incinerator.

ideas for designers www safetyindesign org
IDEAS FOR DESIGNERS www.safetyindesign.org

Case Studies

  • Trimming tops of Concrete Piles
  • Modular Construction and Installation of Services
  • Temporary Support Steelwork for High Level Work Platform
  • Atrium Lighting
  • Integrated Service Column / Panel Design
  • Prefabrication of Steelwork
  • Modular Construction of Stone Panels
trailer access platforms 1
TRAILER ACCESS PLATFORMS1

1 www.safetyindesign.org

cast in sockets for railings 1
CAST-IN SOCKETS FOR RAILINGS1

1 www.safetyindesign.org

color coded bolt bags 1
COLOR CODED BOLT BAGS1

1 www.safetyindesign.org

prefabrication of steelwork 1
PREFABRICATION OF STEELWORK1

1 www.safetyindesign.org

modular service risers 1
MODULAR SERVICE RISERS1

1 www.safetyindesign.org

guidance for designers www safetyindesign org
GUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERSwww.safetyindesign.org
  • Hazardous materials
  • Asbestos
  • Musculo-Skeletal
  • Noise
  • Excavations
  • Erection of Structures
  • Steelwork
guidance for designers www safetyindesign org112
GUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERS www.safetyindesign.org
  • Refurbishment
  • Temporary work equipment
  • Work at height
  • Roofs
  • Spatial Designs
  • Suspended Access Equipment
  • Blockwork
guidance for designers www safetyindesign org113
GUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERS www.safetyindesign.org
  • Demolition
  • Manual Handling
  • Lifting-cranes
guidance for designers t 20 008 work at height 1
GUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERS T 20.008 Work at Height1
  • Design service runs for so that they can be maintained from floor above
  • Pre-assembly and fitting of trusses
  • Position splices for steel columns so the splices can be done from a finished floor
  • Install stairways early to avoid the need for temporary access
  • Locate service equipment on ground if possible

1 www.safetyindesign.org

guidance for designers t 20 002 erecting steelwork 1
GUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERS T 20.002 Erecting Steelwork1
  • Check all steel members for erection loads
  • Ensure that all slender members can resist compression imposed by lifting slings
  • Maximize pre-fabrication
  • Ensure the spacing of purlins allows for the largest component to lowered down through

1 www.safetyindesign.org

guidance for designers t 20 009 roofs 1
GUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERS T 20.009 Roofs1
  • Provide anchors points for fall protection
  • Ensure roof structure can handle stacks of materials
  • Position gutters so that cleaning can be done from cherry pickers or from safe access routes
  • Consider parapets

1 www.safetyindesign.org

guidance for designers h 20 002 noise 1
GUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERS H 20.002 NOISE1
  • Cast in crack inducers rather than saw cutting
  • Cast in anchors rather than site drilling
  • Avoid vibro-compaction of ground
  • Keep site grinding, cutting, etc. to a minimum

1 www.safetyindesign.org

guidance for designers h 20 001musculo skeletal 1
GUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERS H 20.001Musculo-skeletal1
  • Provide adequate space for lifting machines
  • Design for machine laying of pavers
  • Design brick laying to reduce long duration repetition

1 www.safetyindesign.org

guidance for designers h 10 001 hazardous materials 1
GUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERS H 10.001 Hazardous Materials1
  • Cast in chases for services rather than cut to reduce dust
  • Specify water base or solvent free paints
  • Check to see if there any existing contaminants on the site, alert workers

1 www.safetyindesign.org

summary closing
Summary/Closing
  • Introduce the DfCS Process
  • Basic Safety Engineering
  • Design Features
  • Case Studies to Illustrate Process
summary closing123
Summary/Closing

DESIGNERS CAN HAVE A POSITIVE IMPACT ON REDUCING CONSTRUCTION ACCIDENTS

dfcs tools resources
DfCS Tools/Resources
  • Construction Industry Institute database
    • www.construction-institute.org/scriptcontent/more/rr101_11_more.cfm
  • United Kingdom Health & Safety Executive designer guides
    • www.hse.gov.uk/construction/designers/index.htm
  • CHAIR
    • www.workcover.nsw.gov.au/Publications/OHS/SafetyGuides/chairsafetyindesigntool.htm
  • OSHA Website
    • www.osha.gov
dfcs tools resources125
DfCS Tools/Resources
  • Inherently Safer Design Principles for Construction, The Hazard Information Foundation, Inc.besafe@hazardinfo.com
  • www.safetyindesign.org