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Scaffold Safety for Construction

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  1. Scaffold Safety for Construction

  2. Scope and application of the regulation • Regulations on scaffolds in the construction industry are in Subpart L of 29 CFR 1926 • The regulation applies to all scaffolds used in workplaces that are covered by OSHA’s construction regulations 1a

  3. Scope and application of the regulation • It also applies to temporary elevated work platforms and aerial lifts • It does not apply to crane or derrick suspended personnel platforms 1b

  4. Scope and application of the regulation • General industry activities are not covered by the construction industry requirements 1c

  5. Terms • Competent person • Exposed power lines • Guardrail system 2a

  6. Terms • Maximum intended load • Personal fall arrest system • Qualified 2b

  7. Terms • Rated load • Supported scaffold • Suspension scaffold 2c

  8. Training requirements • Training will advise you on how to protect yourself from • electrical hazards • fall hazards • falling object hazards 3a

  9. Training requirements • You must know; • the scaffold’s load capacities • how to handle materials on the scaffold • how to use the scaffold 3b

  10. Electrical safety • Clearance between scaffold equipment and powerlines is crucial to worker safety • Safe distances must be kept between energized lines and conductive material 4a

  11. Electrical safety • Clearances must be maintained when scaffolds are: • erected • used • dismantled • altered • moved 4b

  12. Electrical safety • Before work starts, the utility company or electrical system operator can either: • de-energize the lines • relocate them • install protective coverings to prevent accidental contact with the lines 4c

  13. Welding safety • Be aware of the hazard of welding current arcing through the suspension wire rope when welding from suspended scaffolds • Use an insulated thimble to attach each suspension wire rope to its hanging support 4d

  14. Welding safety • Insulate any excess suspension wire rope or other independent lines • Insulate the suspension wire rope at least 4 feet (1.2 m) above the hoist 4e

  15. Welding safety • If there is a tail line below the hoist, insulate it to prevent contact with the platform • Retain or guide the portion of the tail line that hangs free below the scaffold so that it does not become grounded 4f

  16. Welding safety • Use insulated protective covers to cover each hoist • In addition to a work lead attachment required by the welding process, use a grounding conductor between the scaffold and the structure 4g

  17. Welding safety • If the scaffold grounding lead is disconnected at any time, the welding machine must be shut off • Keep active welding rods or uninsulated welding leads from contacting the scaffold or its suspension system 4h

  18. Fall protection • Each employee on a scaffold more than 10 feet above a lower level must be protected from falling to that lower level • The two types of fall protection are the: • Personal Fall Arrest System (PFAS) • guardrail system 5a

  19. Fall protection • Different types of scaffolds require different types of fall protection 5b

  20. Fall protection • PFASs are required for employees on a: • boatswains’ chair • caternary scaffold • float scaffold • needle beam scaffold • ladder jack scaffold 5c

  21. Fall protection • Both a PFAS and a guardrail system is required for single-point or two-point adjustable suspension scaffolds 5d

  22. Fall protection • Crawling boards (chicken ladders) need either a: • PFAS • guardrail • 3/4 inch diameter grab line or equivalent handhold securely fastened beside the crawling board 5e

  23. Fall protection • Self-contained adjustable scaffolds that have the platform supported by the frame require a guardrail system • Self-contained adjustable scaffolds with the platform supported by ropes require both a PFAS and a guardrail system 5f

  24. Fall protection • Guardrail systems must be used to protect walkways within a scaffold 5g

  25. Fall protection • When the front edge of the platform is more than 14 inches away from the face of the structure, this edge requires a guardrail or workers must use a PFAS 5h

  26. Personal fall arrest systems • The PFAS must meet the requirements in the regulation on Fall Protection (29 CFR 1926.502(d)) • When used on a scaffold, attach the PFAS to a vertical or horizontal lifeline or to a structural member 6a

  27. Personal fall arrest systems • When vertical lifelines are used, they must be: • anchored to a safe fixed point • independent of the scaffold • protected from sharp edges and abrasion 6b

  28. Personal fall arrest systems • Horizontal lifelines must be: • secured to two or more structural members of the scaffold • looped around both suspension and independent suspension lines above the hoist and brake 6c

  29. Personal fall arrest systems • Vertical lifelines, independent support lines, and suspension ropes: • must not be attached to each other • cannot use the same anchorage point 6d

  30. Guardrail systems • Appendix A of the regulation gives specifications for building guardrail systems • Guardrail systems must be installed along all open sides and ends of platforms 7a

  31. Guardrail systems • Requirements for how high the toprail must be above the platform surface, and for the use of: • midrails • screens • mesh • intermediate vertical members • solid panels as part of a guardrail system 7b

  32. Guardrail systems • The guardrail system must be able to withstand force as specified in the regulation 7c

  33. Guardrail systems • Guardrail components must be surfaced so they do not cause: • puncture wounds • lacerations • snagged clothing 7d

  34. Protection from falling objects • Employees must be protected from: • falling hand tools • debris • other small objects 8a

  35. Protection from falling objects • Protection is gained through the installation of: • toeboards • screens • guardrail systems • debris nets • catch platforms • canopy structures that contain or deflect the falling objects 8b

  36. Protection from falling objects • When the falling objects are too large, heavy, or massive to be contained, keep objects away from the edge of the surface 8c

  37. Protection from falling objects • Barricade areas to protect the employees working below from the hazards of falling: • tools • materials • equipment 8d

  38. Protection from falling objects • Install a toeboard along the edge of platforms more than 10 feet above lower levels • Protect the workers below when equipment or materials are piled to a height above the toprail or toeboard on a scaffold’s platform 8e

  39. Load capacities • It is crucial to stay within the scaffold’s load limits • Scaffolds must be designed by a qualified person • Scaffolds must be constructed and loaded in accordance with that design 9a

  40. Load capacities • Each scaffold and scaffold component must be able to support: • its own weight • at least 4 times the maximum intended load applied or transmitted to it 9b

  41. Load capacities • It’s up to the worker to understand and stay within the capacities of the equipment 9c

  42. Load capacities • Don’t make arbitrary changes to a scaffold’s structure • Any modifications can affect the scaffold’s capacity and stability 9d

  43. Load capacities • Scaffolds and scaffold components must never be loaded in excess of their maximum intended loads or rated capacities, whichever is less 9e

  44. Materials handling on scaffolds • Any materials taken onto the platform must be handled properly • Do not allow debris to accumulate on platforms 10a

  45. Materials handling on scaffolds • If materials start to pile up above toeboards, the scaffold may need additional falling object protection • Secure any liquid or powdery materials to guard against spills 10b

  46. Materials handling on scaffolds • Take extra precautions in windy conditions • During storms or high winds, a competent person must determine if it is safe for employees to be on the scaffold 10c

  47. Materials handling on scaffolds • Use tag lines or equivalent measures to control any swinging loads that are being hoisted onto or near scaffolds 10d

  48. Inspection requirements • Inspect scaffolds and scaffold components for visible defects before each shift • Inspect scaffolds after any occurrence that could affect a scaffold’s structural integrity 11a

  49. Inspection requirements • Early detection of structural defects is important; look for hairline cracks 11b

  50. Inspection requirements • Ensure that structural defects in platforms are not covered from view • Platforms may not be covered with opaque finishes 11c