TDI Inspiration and Evolution Closed Circuit Rebreather Diver Course - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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TDI Inspiration and Evolution Closed Circuit Rebreather Diver Course

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  1. TDI Inspiration and Evolution Closed Circuit Rebreather Diver Course

  2. TDI Inspiration and Evolution Closed Circuit Rebreather Diver Course Overview of Course Structure • 1 - Introduction and Welcome • 2 - The History and Development of Rebreathers • 3 - Mechanics of the inspiration and Evolution • 4 - Classic Electronics Control (Optional) • 5 - Vision Electronics Control (Optional) • 6 - Physiology - A Reflection for the CCR Diver

  3. TDI Inspiration and Evolution Closed Circuit Rebreather Diver Course Overview of Course Structure continued • 7 - Let’s Go Diving the Rebreather - Preparation • 8 - Let’s Go Diving the Rebreather - In the Water • 9 - Avoiding Rebreather Incidents - Safe Diving • 10 - Mod 2 Extension (Optional extra course) • 11 - Mod 3 Extension (optional extra course)

  4. TDI Inspiration/Evolution Family of Rebreathers Divers Course Section 1: Introduction and Welcome

  5. Introduction and Welcome • Congratulations of enrolling in a most thrilling experience with Inspiration/Evolution technology • Welcome to a new way of thinking about diving • Understand that you are ALL novices again • You will develop new skills for CCR diving including: • Attitudes • Disciplines • Awareness


  6. Introduction and Welcome Who the course is for and what you can expect to get out of it. • COURSE PREREQUISITES • 18 years of age • Logged 100+ dives • Nitrox and Advanced Nitrox training • COURSE CREDENTIALS • To become qualified to dive the Inspiration/Evolution family of rebreathers on either Classic or Vision Electronics or both (double certification and extra dives) on Air Diluent up to 40m/132ft with safety stops and 5 minutes max deco at 6m/ 20ft

  7. Introduction and Welcome • Why CCR Diving • Longer dive durations possible with very little equipment • Almost silent and bubble free unless ascending • Extremely efficient use of breathing gas • Optional Nitrox mix for all depths according to user-selectable PPO2 setpoint • Warm and moist comfortable breathing gas reducing risk of hypothermic tendencies

  8. Introduction and Welcome • What else can you expect to experience on this course? • Many new terms for CCR not used in OC or SCR diving • Change from a constant percentage Nitrox mix in OC to a variable percentage Nitrox mix with constant partial pressure in CCR mode • Computer controlled gas injection system on ascent causes accelerating bouyancy characteristics • We need to think differently • Jump a billion years of evolutionary development • An opportunity to almost evolve into a sea-going mammal with hours of sub-surface capability, and be back on land again for another fun filled experience

  9. TDI Inspiration/Evolution Family of Rebreathers Divers Course Section 2: The History and Development of Rebreathers

  10. The History and Development of Rebreathers • Rebreathers in basic form have been around for over a century underwater, and longer for mine rescue work • The earliest makes were pure oxygen devices • The Englishmen Henry Fleuss achieves a major milestone covering over 300 meters (1000 feet) underwater in the construction of the Severn railway tunnel a century ago • Military rebreathers developed and used-Stealth

  11. The History and Development of Rebreathers • The advent of readily available Nitrox to the recreational market fuelled the development of recreational nitrox SCR rebreathers • Progress and need in the military theater saw the development of a number of electronic controlled CCR machines over the last two decades • Some cave divers opted for passive mechanical SCR with no electronics • Makes include the Electrolung; Cis Lunar; Drager Atlantis, Dolphin and Ray. • We see the advent of recreational CCR’s with the Inspiration in 1997, followed by Prism, Megalodon,Ouroboros, Optima and Kiss, and in 2005 the Evolution

  12. The History and Development of Rebreathers CONCEPTUAL REBREATHER DESIGN • All need a scrubber for CO2 removal • Pure Oxygen rebreather – no need for electronics in basic form just keep manually adding gas when loop volume falls • Semi Closed SCR uses a known nitrox for loop addition • Mechanical rebreathers use a fractional volume technique to refresh gas • Either Passive by sucking in fresh gas when oxygen in the loop volume is depleted and a diaphragm regulator re-injects to bring loop volume back up, or • Active – Constant flow rate of Nitrox to loop-vent excess

  13. The History and Development of Rebreathers INSPIRATION AND EVOLUTION • Closed Circuit rebreathers (CCR) • State of the art electronic controls • Onboard sources of air and oxygen, scrubber, computer controlled variable Nitrox mixing • Everything the recreational and technical diver needs

  14. TDI Inspiration/Evolution Family of Rebreathers Divers Course Section 3: Mechanics and basic functioning of the Inspiration and Evolution rebreather systems

  15. Diver’s Lungs Mouthpiece and Hoses Exhalation Counterlung Manual Inject Buttons Over Pressure Release Valve The Scrubber The Scrubber Cartridge The Lid and handsets Three Independent Oxygen Sensors The Handsets and Gas Control Battery Compartment Warning Buzzer Cell Connectors The Oxygen Supply Inhalation Counterlung Diluent Gas Supply Mechanics and basic functioning of the Inspiration and Evolution

  16. Mechanics and basic functioning of the Inspiration and Evolution • Including Optional System Components • Auto-Diluent Additional Valve (ADV) and inline LP Flow Stop control device • Vision Electronics System (Factory Purchase) • Includes a redundant LED head-up Display (HUD). Standard on the Evolution, the Vision package is optional on the Inspiration. • Optional Scrubber monitoring temperature sensing “Stick”

  17. Mechanics and basic functioning of the Inspiration and Evolution DIVERS LUNGS • The motor that powers the gas around the rebreather gas loop • The point of exchange for O2 rich gas to the body and CO2 rich gas from the body • When we inhale, “clean” O2 rich gas comes in from the left. • The flow is from the divers lungs through the mouthpiece to the right

  18. Mechanics and basic functioning of the Inspiration and Evolution MOUTHPIECE and HOSES • Mouthpiece and one-way mushroom valves control direction of gas flow • Timing of gas flow is in sympathy with diver’s breathing pattern. • Hoses are large bore. This reduces the work of breathing (WOB) • Mouthpiece hose is weighted for dynamic balance - adjustable

  19. Mechanics and basic functioning of the Inspiration and Evolution EXHALATION COUNTERLUNG • Counterlungs come from the factory in 4 different sizes – User Selectable • Contains first fixed T-piece and “water-trap” flow valve directing gas and water into the exhalation counterlung • Flexible breathing bag to contain gas from body • Contains both the Manual Oxygen Addition Valve and the Gas Loop Over Pressure Release Valve

  20. Mechanics and basic functioning of the Inspiration and Evolution THE CO2 SCRUBBER (or Stack) • Gas path is from the exhalation counterlung, through the T-piece down to the bottom of the CO2 scrubber • It fans out to a large bore axial flow through the scrubber to reduce gas velocity and increase “Dwell Time” for CO2 removal

  21. Mechanics and basic functioning of the Inspiration and Evolution THE SCRUBBER CARTRIDGE • Designed to remove CO2 from the gas loop. • Spring loaded to maintain air gap at bottom • Designed with Hydrophobic membranes for prevention of water absorption • Contains upper and lower plastic retainers for the scrubber material

  22. Mechanics and basic functioning of the Inspiration and Evolution The Scrubber Cartridge – continued • Different scrubber makes can give different duration times due to different granule sizes • Spacer and o-ring for prevention of gas by-pass up the side of the scrubber canister • Only designed to remove CO2, not any other toxic compounds or contaminants in the breathing gas

  23. Mechanics and basic functioning of the Inspiration and Evolution SCRUBBER MATERIALS • Have a defined shelf life time and in use up to 3 hours • Effectiveness altered by time, temperature and moisture • Sofnolime 797 grade recommended ( Other makes include Dragersorb and Sodasorb) • Sofnolime is primarily a Sodium Hydroxide compound • Needs proper packing to prevent CO2 channeling • Efficiency is reduced by high gas flow rates (fast or skip breathing) or focused “channeling” characteristics • In a properly assembled and properly functioning CCR system the CO2 scrubber is the “Achilles Heel”

  24. Mechanics and basic functioning of the Inspiration and Evolution SCRUBBER MANAGEMENT • No partial filling of the scrubber. New full canister every time • Do not empty scrubber into a bag and re-pack the scrubber later- new and used granules are then mixed • Do not store partly used scrubber for more than a few days. The material absorbs CO2 and grows mold

  25. Mechanics and basic functioning of the Inspiration and Evolution CONTROLLERS GENERAL • Power On • No wet contacts • Switch on manually • Self testing electronics. Hear/see alarms and hear solenoid firing • 3 control buttons, but classic uses a separate power switch also

  26. Mechanics and basic functioning of the Inspiration and Evolution HANDSET CONTROLLER GENERALITIES • Handset controllers are electronic – handle carefully • There are two independent handset “controllers” on all Inspirations/Evolutions • The primary function of the controller is to control oxygen injection and display real time information to the diver • The controller also drives the alarm systems and interfaces with the diver via 3 control buttons • Can be switched on and off separately • They are redundant in a Master/Slave combination • Either controller can be the Master

  27. Mechanics and basic functioning of the Inspiration and Evolution CONTROLLER LOCATIONS • On the Inspiration Classic the controllers are in the handsets • On Vision Electronics the single handset is a display and keypad only – the controllers are in the Scrubber Lid

  28. Mechanics and basic functioning of the Inspiration and Evolution THE SCRUBBER LID and HANDSETS • The electronic “brains” of the device • Function is to control the PPO2 of the breathing gas to a user defined setpoint and display this and other dive parameters to the diver visually (handset display) (and HUD on Vision) and audibly (buzzer alarms) • Great care should be taken when handling them • For transport fully assemble rebreather or carry lid and handsets separately in a padded bag • Treat it with the same care as a laptop

  29. Mechanics and basic functioning of the Inspiration and Evolution 3 INDEPENDENT OXYGEN SENSORS • 3 galvanic fuel cells each with a milli-volt output proportional to the oxygen exposure across their outer faces (breathing gas) • Voting logic of the computer for oxygen control purposes averages the nearest 2 readings and ignores the 3rd • This information is displayed to the diver as PPO2 values • Delicate pin connections • Should never smell of “toxic” or other vapors

  30. Mechanics and basic functioning of the Inspiration and Evolution THE HANDSETS ( and HUD on Vision) • Redundant controller PPO2 readings displayed to the diver • Inspiration has 2 handsets, Evolution has 1 handset • Provide for underwater dive menu changes to suit environment • Must be switched on to have a chance to drive the oxygen solenoid • Will give indications of battery health, controller health, and cell health in real time, underwater • Can drive audible and visual alarms • Redundancy so that 1 controller can fail while the other allows you to safely exit the water • Need to constantly be checking PPO2 on the handset

  31. Mechanics and basic functioning of the Inspiration and Evolution THE HANDSETS (and HUD on VISION) – continued • Can drive audible and visual alarms • Redundancy so that 1 controller can fail while the other allows you to safely control the rebreather and exit the water • Need to constantly be checking the PPO2 on the handset during the dive

  32. Mechanics and basic functioning of the Inspiration and Evolution • CONSTANT PPO2 GAS CONTROL • Remember Dalton’s Law from Advanced Nitrox Pressure gas = FO2 x Pressure • At different depths (gas pressures) for a constant PPO2 controller setting we will have a Nitrox mix that changes proportionally to pressure • At any given depth we can calculate the Nitrox mix for any given PPO2 setting

  33. Mechanics and basic functioning of the Inspiration and Evolution

  34. Mechanics and basic functioning of the Inspiration and Evolution BATTERY COMPARTMENT • Two slots for the two 2CR-P2 lithium 6 volt batteries • Battery life typically 15 – 20 hours for the master • Slave battery life longer – not firing the solenoid

  35. Mechanics and basic functioning of the Inspiration and Evolution WARNING BUZZER(and HUD) • Connected to the scrubber lid but normally fed to the T-piece by diver’s left ear (HUD goes same way to left side of mouthpiece) • This is a secondary warning device, the handsets are the primary indicators always • In conditions of low battery power alarms may fail before handsets do • (The HUD provides green/red visual health status to the divers direct area of vision)

  36. Mechanics and basic functioning of the Inspiration and Evolution CELL CONNECTORS • These are delicate and covered with red or blue moisture caps with holes for pressure equalization • Take great care not to damage wires or connectors if changing cells

  37. Mechanics and basic functioning of the Inspiration and Evolution THE OXYGEN SUPPLY • Dive tank switched on • HP to SPG on front of exhalation lung gives O2 pressure • LP hose feeds O2 to the LID for the solenoid from the first stage regulator • First stage regulator I/P must be 7.5 Bar • Evolution uses 2 liter cylinders, Inspiration uses 3 liter cylinders • Remember:- Rich mix Right, Lean mix Left

  38. Mechanics and basic functioning of the Inspiration and Evolution INHALATION COUNTERLUNG • O2 rich gas from the scrubber lid comes up to the inhalation counterlung • Blue color coded for hoses containing clean oxygenated gas with the CO2 removed • Passes through the inhalation T-piece without “Water-Traps on the newer machines • Blue Manual Diluent addition button at bottom of inhalation counterlung

  39. Mechanics and basic functioning of the Inspiration and Evolution DILUENT GAS SUPPLY • Need to use diluent below 6msw (20fsw) • Manually add diluent on descent depressing the blue manual addition button on the inhalation counterlung “to equalize” the loop volume with pressure changes • LP feeds both the wing BCD and the Auto-air OC bailout device • Tank pressure is displayed on the SPG via HP hose over left shoulder • Do not use for Drysuit inflation – use off board gas • IP normally set to 9.5 Bar

  40. Mechanics and basic functioning of the Inspiration and Evolution OPTIONAL AUTO-ADDITION DILUENT VALVE –ADV and FLOW STOP CONTROL DEVICE • Replaces Inhalation T-piece and does not contain a water-trap device • Automatically allows diluent into the breathing loop from the diluent side via a diaphragm if loop pressure drops below ambient • Flow Stop Control Switch on the LP hose from the diluent first stage feeding the ADV can be used to switch ADV off if free flowing or faulty

  41. Mechanics and basic functioning of the Inspiration and Evolution BOUYANCY WING and AUTO AIR • All Inspiration and Evolution CCR come fitted with a wing and Auto-air as standard • The bouyancy wing and Auto-air are fed by LP feed from the diluent first stage • The Auto-air is an OC 2nd stage regulator connected directly to the diluent gas supply via the first stage regulator • The wing can be fitted with an optional “crack-bottle” for alternate gas source inflation

  42. TDI Inspiration/Evolution Family of Rebreathers Divers Course Section 4: Classic Electronics Control

  43. Classic Electronics Control DUAL HANDSET CONTROLLERS • Liquid Crystal display on each with protective clear faceplate • 3 white magnetic Hall-Effect control Switches – spring loaded • One black rotary power switch • Power switch up = on • Power switch down = Off

  44. Classic Electronics Control CLASSIC HANDSETS • Separate Power On/Off switch – beware it can get caught in your gear and get switched off • Each handset shows if it is Master or Slave • Each handset displays the three cell readings in PPO2

  45. Classic Electronics Control • Each handset displays the current setpoint setting at the top of the screen • Alarms are shown in text on the screen • There is a start-up menu that scrolls through basic pre-dive conditions to check diluent, and asks if you would like to calibrate and check the oxygen valve • The dive menu in water allows setpoint changes and changes to backlighting intensity • Your Instructor will guide you through the cycle

  46. TDI Inspiration/Evolution Family of Rebreathers Divers Course Section 5: Vision Electronics Control

  47. Vision Electronics Control VISION • General • Owners personal data is shown on screen • Software Revision Version shown on screen • Optional software versions are available for Nitrox and Trimix diving • Vision Electronics available in German, Dutch, Italian, Spanish, Portugese, French and English • Functionality and displays similar in many respects to the classic Inspiration Handsets

  48. Vision Electronics Control SINGLE HANDSET SYSTEM • Liquid Crystal display mounted in aluminum case • 3 black buttons for commands • Twin redundant controllers C1 and C2 housed in Scrubber Lid • Power on by left switch • Power off by menu command by depressing right 2 buttons simultaneously • Can select to power off C1 or C2(anytime) or All Off but not underwater

  49. Vision Electronics Control SINGLE HUD DEVICE • Dual redundant displays of twin LED’s one green one red connected to C1 and C2 • Fiber optic cable running along mouthpiece hose connects to controllers in Scrubber Lid • Green LED’s are “Good” • Red LED’s are ‘Rong’ or Alarms • HUD lighting intensity is user selectable • Read handset to get the detail of type of alarm • Visual alarms generated with audible alarms

  50. VisionElectronics Control OPTIONAL SCRUBBER TEMP STICK • Connects to Scrubber Lid via connectorised cable and status is displayed on the handset • It is NOT a CO2 monitor • Temp Stick is a temperature sensing system to detect where the main ‘Burn Face’ of CO2 absorption is taking place through the scrubber segments • It aids in scrubber maintenance monitoring