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Honors Biology CHAPTER 8 REVIEW. “Sex in the Cell City”. ASEXUAL 1 parent Forms identical cells Forms 2 daughter cells. SEXUAL 2 parents Forms different cells Forms 4 daughter cells. #1 Contrast asexual and sexual reproduction:. #2 Compare: Chromatin, Chromosomes, Chromatids. ANSWER.

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honors biology chapter 8 review

Honors BiologyCHAPTER 8 REVIEW

“Sex in the Cell City”

1 contrast asexual and sexual reproduction
ASEXUAL

1 parent

Forms identical cells

Forms 2 daughter cells

SEXUAL

2 parents

Forms different cells

Forms 4 daughter cells

#1 Contrast asexual and sexualreproduction:
answer
ANSWER
  • ALL ARE DNA + PROTEIN
  • Chromatin – loose in interphase
  • Chromosomes – dense and coiled in mitosis- connected by a centromere

Chromatid – condensed - paired with identical sister chromatid

to determine the number of chromosomes count the centromere regions
To determine the number of chromosomes, count the centromere regions
  • There are 3

chromosomes here

There are 6

chromosomes

here

3 what do you call
#3 What do you call…
  • A fertilized egg
  • Zygote
  • Fertilization
  • Joining of the egg and sperm
slide7
#4
  • What do you call asexual reproduction in prokaryotes?
  • Binary fission
  • What do you call asexual reproduction in eukaryotes?
  • mitosis
asexual and sexual repro
Asexual and Sexual Repro
  • How do the chromosome numbers compare before and after reproduction in each?
  • EXAMPLE:If the original cell had 20 chromosomes, how many chromosomes would each cell have after each type of reproduction?
answer1
ANSWER
  • Sexual Reproduction -resulting cells have half the number of chromosomes
  • (start with 20 – end with 10 chromosomes)
  • Diploid to haploid
  • Asexual Reproduction -resulting cells have the identical number of chromosomes
  • (start and end with 20 chromosomes)
  • Diploid to diploid
answer 5 chromosomes differ in
PROKARYOTES

One Circular chromosome

Smaller (3,000 genes in bacterium)

simpler

EUKARYOTES

Many Long strands of chromosomes

Larger ( 100,000 genes in humans)

More complex

ANSWER #5 Chromosomes differ in…
4 compare the number of genes
#4 Compare the number of genes:
  • Humans to bacteria
  • ANSWER:
  • 100,000 to 3,000
6 put in correct order
6. Put in correct order
  • Telophase
  • Anaphase
  • Metaphase
  • Prophase
  • Prometaphase
6 answer
6. ANSWER
  • P PM M A T
    • Prophase
    • Prometaphase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
7 how does nuclear membrane change
7. How does nuclear membrane change?
  • In prometaphase
  • dissolves
  • In telophase
  • reforms
8 what is
8. What is…?
  • Cytokinesis
  • Division of the cytoplasm
8 answer
PLANT CELLS

Form cell plate

ANIMAL CELLS

Form a cleavage furrow by pinching in the cytoplasm

8. ANSWER
8 continued define
8. (continued) Define:
  • Cell plate
  • Cleavage furrow
8 answer1
Cell plate

In plant cells the cell wall will form

Cleavage Furrow

Pinching of the cytoplasm by actin pulling like a drawstring

8. ANSWER
answer2
ANSWER
  • G1growsin size, increases organelles
  • S DNA synthesis (replicates)
  • G2 makes centrioles for cell division + growth
what is the purpose of
What is the purpose of…
  • Mitosis?A. make bigger cells
  • B. make exact copies of cells in two daughter cells
  • C. make copies of cells with twice the number of chromosomes
  • D. decrease the number of cells
answer3
ANSWER
  • B. make exact copies of cells in two daughter cells
10 locate
10. Locate
  • Chromatids
  • Centromeres
  • Asters
  • Centrioles
  • spindles
10 answer
10. ANSWER

Chromatids

Centromeres

asters

Spindles

centrioles

11 spindles
11. Spindles
  • What is the difference between the kinetochore and the non-kinetochore spindles?
  • Kinetochore spindles are attached to the chromatids and shorten
  • Non-kinetochore spindles

go pole-to-pole and lengthen

the cell

11 what makes the
11. What makes the…
  • Chromatids move to the poles (centrioles)?
  • Kinetochore spindles shorten and motor proteins power the movement
11 answer
11. ANSWER
  • kinesin motor protein
  • Motor

Proteins

(dynein)-use

ATP to

grab and move

the chromatid

12 growth factor
12. Growth Factor
  • Chemical produced outside of the cell to start the cells to begin the cell cycle
  • EX: when you have a cut
12 what is the purpose of a growth factor
12. What is the purpose ofa growth factor?
  • naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth
  • Remember the mice would healing article at the beginning of the year? What did VEGF do? (grape-seed article)
  • Create blood vessels if at an injury site
13 matching
13. MATCHING

1 Cells divide A. anchorage

until reach a definite dependence

limit (other cells, walls)

2 cells need contact B. cancer cells

to grow

3 cells continue to grow C. density-

Uncontrollably dependent

inhibition

13 matching answers
13. MATCHING ANSWERS

1-C Cells divide A. anchorage

until reach a definite dependence

limit (other cells, walls)

2-A cells need contact B. cancer cells

to grow

3-B cells continue to grow C. density-

Uncontrollably dependent

inhibition

14 match the cancers
14. MATCH THE CANCERS
  • A. carcinoma
  • B. sarcoma
  • C. lymphoma
  • D. leukemia
  • E. metastasis
  • 1. spread of cancer cells beyond site
  • 2. cancer from bone marrow
  • 3. cancer from outer skin or linings
  • 4. support tissue cancers (bone, muscle)
  • 5. cancer of lymphatic system
14 match the cancers1
14. MATCH THE CANCERS
  • 3 A. carcinoma
  • 4 B. sarcoma
  • 5 C. lymphoma
  • 2 D. leukemia
  • 1 E. metastasis
  • 1. spread of cancer cells beyond site
  • 2. cancer from bone marrow (makes WBC)
  • 3. cancer from outer skin or linings
  • 4. support tissue cancers (bone, muscle)
  • 5. cancer of lymphatic system
14 match the cancers2
14. MATCH THE CANCERS
  • Benign
  • Malignant
  • tumor
  • 1. tumor growth spread to other tissue
  • 2. abnormal growth but not beyond original site
  • 3. abnormal growth of cells
14 match the cancers3
14. MATCH THE CANCERS
  • 2 Benign
  • 1 Malignant
  • 3 tumor
  • 1. tumor growth spread to other tissue
  • 2. abnormal growth but not beyond original site
  • 3. abnormal growth of cells
15 what is the name of the gene that
15. What is the name of the gene that...
  • Gene that causes breast cancer
  • P27 (on chromosome 12 FYI)
  • Spellchecks DNA for errors and repairs them?
  • p53
17 what is the name of
17. What is the name of…
  • The protein that signals each phase of the cell cycle to start?
  • Cyclins
  • (build up

and break

down)

how do cyclins and cdk s work together
How do cyclins and cdk’s work together?
  • Cdk is an enzyme that

attaches to cyclin to form

MPF (maturation

promotion factor) to begin

that part of the cell

Cycle

Phosphate group activates

with energy

18 how are cancer cells
18. How are cancer cells...
  • Abnormal in the cell cycle?
answer4
ANSWER
  • Do not have a properly functioning cell cycle control system-grow uncontrollably
18 what body cells
18. What body cells...
  • Divide a lot?
  • Not at all after formed?
18 what cells
Divide a lot

skin

blood

digestive tract

Don’t divide after formed

Nerve (brain)

muscle

18. What cells…
18 what part of the cell cycle
18. What part of the cell cycle…
  • Is when cells that do not divide leave the cell cycle or go to differentiate?
  • G0
19 name the phase of mitosis
Chromatin thickens

nuclear envelope disappears

nuclear envelope reforms

Prophase

prometaphase

telophase

19. Name the Phase of Mitosis
19 name the phase of mitosis1
Centrioles moving to the opposite poles

spindle fibers form

cell plate forms

Prophase

prophase

Telophase/

cytokinesis

19. Name the Phase of Mitosis
29 what are gametes
#29 What are gametes?
  • A. autosomes
  • B. female chromosomes
  • C. sex cells
  • D. daughter cells
  • ANSWER: Gametes are sex cells. For Human they are sperm (male) and egg (female)
30 what phase of meiosis1
30. What phase of meiosis?

P1

A2

A1

M1

M2

4 daughter cells

P2

30 what phase of meiosis3
30. What phase of meiosis?
  • A-I
  • B. P1 early
  • C.P1 late
  • D. M1
  • E. F. A1
  • G. T1
  • H. Interkinesis
  • I. P2
  • J. M2
  • K. A2
  • L. T2
  • M.4 daughter cells
32 what 3 factors increase genetic variability after meiosis
32. What 3 factors increase genetic variability after meiosis?
  • 1. independent orientation of chromosomes at metaphase I (which chromosome lined up on each side)
  • 2. random fertilization (which sperm joined which egg)
  • 3. crossing over
  • (ALSO MUTATION…coming in next unit)
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