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GreenTouch Consortium: Building the Roadmap. Dan Kilper Chair, Technical Committee. 2020 ICT Carbon Footprint. 820m tons CO 2. 360m tons CO 2. 2007 Worldwide ICT carbon footprint: 2% = 830 m tons CO 2 Comparable to the global aviation industry Expected to grow to 4% by 2020.

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GreenTouch Consortium: Building the Roadmap

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greentouch consortium building the roadmap

GreenTouch Consortium: Building the Roadmap

Dan Kilper

Chair, Technical Committee

2020 ict carbon footprint
2020 ICT Carbon Footprint

820m tons CO2

360m tons CO2

2007 Worldwide ICTcarbon footprint:2% = 830 m tons CO2

Comparable to theglobal aviation industry

Expected to grow to 4% by 2020

260m tons CO2

The Climate Group, GeSIReport “Smart 2020”, 2008


Tightening Energy Bottleneck

Bandwidth, Services, Applications

Technology Limits


  • Capacity limits for existing technology and by power/thermal budgets
  • Deploying new efficient equipment


Corporate Responsibility

to Climate Change

OPEX $$$

Energy costs

  • Publicly visible good-will provided by being "Green"
  • Proactive stance in reducing greenhouse gas emissions
  • Customers feel better about service provider . . . leading to revenue growth
  • With energy costs sky-rocketing, increasing share of operations cost
  • Cooling is high percentage of network power consumption (20% to 50%)


fiber capacity deficit or crunch
Fiber Capacity Deficit or “Crunch”


Penny Calls,

24/7 Connection

What next?






Only call on weekends






the network energy gap
The Network Energy Gap


Internet Backbone

Mobile Data

Growing Gap!

Mobile Efficiency

Wireline Efficiency

Kilper, et. al., IEEE JSTQE 2011

ideal efficiency improvements on bau flat in 2020
Ideal Efficiency Improvements on BAU: Flat in 2020
  • Improving network efficiency at best keeps power consumption flat over next decade
    • What happens after 2020?
    • Can only use ‘sleep modes’ once

Current technology will only sustain us for another decade: how do we go beyond?

ict industry responds
ICT Industry Responds
  • First Step: metrics, awareness, standards, call to action
    • Global e-Sustainability Initiative (GeSI)
    • ITU-T
    • GreenGrid
  • Next Step: Cooperation, Action
    • EARTH: LTE 2x
    • Mobile VCE: Green Radio 100x
    • Institute for Energy Efficiency: Wireless and Optical 100x
    • GreenTouch: ICT Networks 1000x

Semiconductor Industry Already Organized for the Long View:

ITRS 15 years out

what is greentouch
What is GreenTouch?

Broad, open and global consortium executing research projects to achieve aggressive goal

Roadmap organization establishing reference architectures and research targets to overcome major challenges facing network scaling and energy

Venue for cooperation and enabling demonstrations among research organizations

Forum for the exchange of information on energy trends, challenges, & research on communication networks

GreenTouch Mission

By 2015, our goal is to deliver the architecture, specifications and roadmap — and demonstrate key components — needed to increase network energy efficiency by a factor of 1000 from current levels.

greentouch members
GreenTouch Members
  • AT&T Services
  • Athens Information Technology (AIT) Center for Research & Education
  • Bell Labs, Alcatel-Lucent
  • Broadcom
  • Carnegie Mellon University
  • CEA-LETI Applied Research Institute for Microelectronics
  • China Mobile
  • Chunghwa Telecom
  • Columbia University
  • Commscope/Andrew
  • Draka Communications
  • Dublin City University
  • ETRI
  • ES Network/Lawrence Berkeley Labs
  • Fondazione Politecnico di Milano
  • Fraunhofer-Geselleschaft
  • France Telecom
  • Freescale Semiconductor
  • Fujitsu
  • Huawei
  • IBBT
  • IMEC
  • Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
  • KatholiekeUniversiteit Leuven (K.U. Leuven)
  • King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology
  • KT Corporation
  • National ICTA Australia
  • Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp
  • Politecnico di Torino
  • Portugal Telecom Inovação, S.A.
  • Samsung (SAIT)
  • Seoul National University
  • Swisscom
  • TNO
  • Tsinghua University
  • TTI
  • TU Dresden
  • University College London
  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Delaware
  • University of L’Aquila
  • University of Leeds
  • University of Manchester
  • University of Maryland
  • University of Melbourne’s Institute for a Broadband-Enabled Society (IBES)
  • University of New South Wales
  • University of Paderborn
  • University of Rochester
  • University of Toronto
  • Waterford Institute of Technology
  • ZTE

GreenTouch : Building the Roadmap | 2011

greentouch organization
GreenTouch Organization

Executive Board

Gee Rittenhouse

Technical Committee

Dan Kilper, Shugong Xu

Operations Committee

Thierry V. Landegem, Kevin Kemp

Services, Applications Trends Steve Korotky , BianSen

Network Committee

Kerry Hinton

Working Groups

greentouch working groups
GreenTouch Working Groups

Working Groups

Access Networks

Wireline Access


P. Vetter, L. Lefevre

Mobile CommunicationsU. Barth,

E. Calvanese-Strinati

Core Networks


and Routing

T. Klein, J. Elmirghani

Optical Networking & Transmission

W. Shieh, C. Dorize

greentouch approach
GreenTouch Approach
  • Bottom Up Research Organization
  • Use of models to structure and guide research and collaboration
  • Funding through member contributions & external sources
  • Gauge impact of innovations on:
    • Alternative metrics (carbon footprint, network power, embedded energy)
    • Adjacent technologies (data centers, handsets)
  • Measure, model and predict energy consumption in ICT networks (equipment trends, traffic, deployment)
targets and challenges
Targets and Challenges

How do we prevent this?

Total Network


What are the major technical obstacles?

Wireline Access



If we wait until 2020, won’t see solution until 2030!

consortium 5 year goal
Consortium 5 Year Goal
  • Define architectures
  • Demonstrate tech.

Use models for network in 2020 to set technology demonstration requirements

use architecture models targets to track progress
Use Architecture Models & Targets to Track Progress
  • Define architectures and track research results
    • Identify targets for each architecture and update network efficiency in model as targets are achieved
      • Working groups define targets and evaluate completion
      • Targets can be achieved within GreenTouch projects or from broader community
      • Identify gaps in effort and solicit new activities


Remaining targets achieved

12 targets achieved

1 target achieved

3 targets achieved

modeling provides clear picture of goals
Modeling Provides Clear Picture of Goals
  • Baseline year 2010
  • Target year 2020
  • GreenTouch results in five years: 2015


Efficiency in Mbps/W

GreenTouch 5 year Goal: Element efficiency demonstrationtargets for model 2020 network

Overall network efficiencytarget in 2020

roadmap details underway
Roadmap Details Underway



  • Draft wireline access cpe trend
  • Draft Core Opt Ntwk transponder model

After sleep mode

Efficient HW design

Virtual HGW


Low power circuits beyond CMOS


Services, Applications & Trends

Core Optical Networking & Transmission

Wireline Access Networks

Core Switching & Routing

Mobile Communications





some research projects
Some Research Projects…

Beyond Cellular – Green Mobile Networks

Virtual Home Gateway

Optimal End-to-End Resource Allocation

Service Energy Aware Optical Networks

Green Transmission Technologies

Minimum Energy Access Architectures

Single-Chip Linecards

Large-Scale Antenna Systems

Highly-Adaptive Layer Mesh Networks

Massive MIMO

Steady flow of new

Projects& coop. activities

first technology demonstration large scale antenna array systems using mimo to focus rf energy
First Technology Demonstration: Large Scale Antenna Array Systems, Using MIMO to Focus RF Energy

Processing Unit

Marzetta, T. L., IEEE Trans Wireless Comm, Nov 2010

current antenna technology22
Current Antenna Technology



Power used

© 2011 GreenTouch Consortium

simulating current antenna technology
Simulating Current Antenna Technology

16 element antenna array



Power used = 16W

large scale antenna system demonstration
Large Scale Antenna System Demonstration


16 Antennas  16x power reduction!


Bell Labs






Power used = 1W

beyond cellular mobile separating data network from signaling network
Beyond Cellular MobileSeparating Data Network from Signaling Network
  • Data Network

Signaling Network



Bell Labs




Mobile Communications Working Group

wireline access
Wireline Access

DSP Platforms for Wireless Home Network

Min. Energy Access Architectures

Sleep Modes

Un-cooled Tunable


Virtual Home Gateway

Low Power OFDM in Optical Access

Novel PON Protocols; Low Power Customer Premises Equipment

Fiber in the Home

single chip router linecards

Multiple Cores



Content Cache

Optical Fiber

Silicon Photonics

Single-Chip Router Linecards

Hybrid Electronic – Photonic Chip

Core Switching & Routing Working Group

cooperation among diverse research groups consortia


Thru port

Drop port

Add port

Cooperation Among Diverse Research Groups & Consortia
  • Cooperating Project INTERNET: INTelligent Energy awaReNETworks


current greentouch projects
Current GreenTouch Projects
  • BCG2: Beyond Cellular Green Generation*
  • GTT: Green Transmission Technologies*
  • LSAS: Large Scale Antenna Systems*
  • Minimum Energy Access Architectures
    • Minimum energy access architecture demonstration
  • VHG: Virtual Home Gateway
  • OPERA: Optimal End to End Resource Allocation
  • STAR: Switching & Transmission
  • REPTILE: Router Power Measurements
  • Single Chip Linecard
  • ZeBRA: Zero Buffer Router Architectures
  • SEASON: Service Energy Aware Sustainable Optical Networks*
  • HALF MOON: Highly Adaptive Layer for Mesh On-off Optical Networks
  • EFICOST: Energy Efficient High Capacity OFDM Signal Transmission
  • Telecommunication Audits and Data Aggregation

*Cluster project made up of several sub-projects/activities

greentouch project process
GreenTouch Project Process

Includes endorsement of contributed or cooperative projects & activities

Opportunity for members to review, solicit, & fund projects or make in-kind contributions

Members can direct donations for the purpose of funding projects or activities, or make a general contribution

initial activities
Initial Activities

Build research program

First technology demonstration spring 2011

Establish common reference architecture

Define primary research targets

Establish expected trends on key metrics to 2020

Provide international forum for cooperation and exchange of ideas on energy research topics

new approaches focus on energy
New Approaches: Focus on Energy
  • New devices
    • Analog vs digital, best use of optics and electronics
    • Old ideas finding new life: large scale MIMO
  • New architectures
    • trade-off transmission/bandwidth and processing, distributed versus centralized
  • New protocols
    • Longer packet sizes or no packets at all for certain applications
  • Service optimized networks
    • Move away from one size fits all—use most energy efficiency hardware for the service
    • Coordinate service delivery/applications with network hardware operation
  • Restructuring layers, architectures, feature options
    • How much do way pay in energy for convenience? duplicated functions (FEC)?
    • What technologies do we really need in order to support the essential capabilities?
minimizing processing
Minimizing Processing
  • Repetition
    • Unnecessary router hops
    • Inter-operator exchange
    • Multiple transmissions
  • Remove processing from the data path
    • Separate control channel?
  • Focus on Service
    • Content delivery vs. browsing vs messaging
  • Push to the edges
    • FEC
    • Security, policy processing
  • Simplified Addressing
    • Geographic addressing/binary switching

Separate what is needed from what is convenience

a scalable internet holistic re design
A Scalable Internet: Holistic Re-Design
  • Processing
    • New addressing—transparent data flow
    • End-to-End—security, FEC
  • Back to the Future
    • Optimized hardware for given task: service differentiation
      • Take the movies out of the routers
  • How many layers do we need?
  • How do protocols and algorithms impact hardware design?
  • How do we unlock physical potential—small cells, efficient MIMO?
  • What is the real energy cost for the features and functions supported in the network?
A global organization dedicated to the long term sustainability of ICT networks

Tackle major problems end-to-end, full picture

Lay the foundation technologies

Clear vision for future: roadmap


















Future is a different game than the past

thank you

Thank You

© 2011 GreenTouch Consortium