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Green Building “The future of home building is green building” Charlie Ruma, Immediate-past President of NAHB Definition green building is the resource-efficient— 1. design 2. construction, and 3. operation of buildings by employing environmentally sensible:

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green building
Green Building

“The future of home building is green building”

  • Charlie Ruma, Immediate-past President of NAHB
definition
Definition
  • green building is the resource-efficient—

1. design

2. construction, and

3. operation

  • of buildings by employing environmentally sensible:

1. construction practices

2. systems, and

3. materials

Source: National Association of Home Builders (NAHB)

facts
Facts
  • recent phenomenon (1991)
  • about a 2 dozen green building programs in existence:
    • municipal
      • voluntary (Austin, TX)
      • mandatory (Boulder, CO; Frisco, TX)
    • HBA
      • voluntary (Denver, CO; Atlanta, GA)
  • more to come…
components
Components
  • main areas addressed by green building programs:
    • energy and resource efficiency
    • water conservation
    • health and environmental quality
    • materials and waste management
    • site design and protection
energy standards
Energy Standards
  • reduces energy consumption:
    • passive solar design
    • light-colored roofing
    • energy-efficient appliances
    • low emissivity windows
    • improved insulation
    • efficient lighting
    • energy-efficient AC and heating systems
resource standards
Resource Standards
  • draws on renewable resources where possible:
    • ground-source heat pumps
    • passive solar design
    • solar thermal water heaters
    • photovoltaic panels
water standards
Water Standards
  • conserves water:
    • low-flow fixtures
    • low-flow toilets
    • greywater systems
    • rainwater harvesting
    • xeriscaping
    • “smart” irrigation systems
materials standards
Materials Standards
  • promotes best use of materials:
    • floor joists, wall studs at 24” centers
    • engineered lumber products where possible
    • laminated wood in lieu of solid beams
    • regionally-produced products
    • recycled content carpet and padding
    • recycled content roof material
waste management standards
Waste Management Standards
  • encourages waste management:
    • recycle construction waste
    • outdoor composting
    • built-in kitchen recycling center
building site standards
Building Site Standards
  • protects the building site:
    • erosion control site plan
    • save and reuse topsoil
    • existing tree protection
    • replant or donate removed vegetation
    • maximize pervious surface
health environmental standards
Health/Environmental Standards
  • focuses on health and environmental quality:
    • low VOC interior paints
    • solvent-free, low-toxic finishes
    • radon mitigation
    • carbon monoxide detector
    • exhaust fan in garage
    • moisture control measures
    • central vacuum system vented to exterior
benefits of green building
Benefits of Green Building
  • lower operating cost
    • homes require less energy and use less water
  • lower maintenance
    • more durable building components/better building practices reduce upkeep and replacement costs
  • increased home value
    • lower documented utility bills
    • market for “green” homes
  • improved environmental quality
    • indoor (moisture control)
    • outdoor (resource-efficiency)

Source: NAHB

existing programs
Existing Programs
  • Austin, TX
  • Boulder, CO
  • Denver, CO
  • Atlanta, GA
  • Frisco, TX
austin green builder program
Austin Green Builder Program
  • first green building program in the nation (1991)
  • voluntary, municipally-run program
  • city-owned utility company is a major partner in the program
  • certifies homes on a scale of one to four stars.
  • 5 content areas focusing on environmental issues
  • assists building professionals:
    • training
    • marketing
    • technical advice
austin green builder program cont
Austin Green Builder Program (cont.)
  • market-based and market-driven program (very little regulation)
    • energy code amendment to building code
    • 18 required items out of 170
  • focus on education of consumers:
    • consumers drive the market
    • $150,000 marketing budget
  • certified approximately 600 homes in 2000
boulder s green points building program
Boulder’s Green Points Building Program
  • municipally-run program
  • mandatory (regulatory with some flexibility)
    • new construction/remodeling over 500 square feet
    • Green Points Application
  • 1 level with 8 content areas
  • few point requirements from the content areas
  • additional point for every 200 sf. over 2,500
  • mix of city-inspection and self-certification standards
  • standards in packet (Appendix C)
denver s built green colorado program
Denver’s Built Green Colorado Program
  • voluntary, HBA–run program
    • extensive marketing and education partnerships with state government
  • provides marketing and technical assistance to builders, as well as discounts on educational seminars
  • great flexibility
    • 21 content areas focusing on energy and materials
    • only 1 required item out of 136
  • certified over 1,200 homes in 2000
atlanta s earthcraft house program
Atlanta’s EarthCraft House Program
  • voluntary, HBA-run program
  • provides builders with training, technical assistance, marketing materials, and direct referrals
  • NAHB “Guide to Developing Green Builder Programs”
  • 1 level with 12 content areas
  • certification by HBA
  • standards in packet (Appendix D)
frisco s green builder program
Frisco’s Green Builder Program
  • mandatory, municipally-run program (adopted May, 2001)
  • first city in the country to adopt the EPA’s Energy Star program requirements as minimum building standards for new homes
    • HERS score of 86 (30% more efficient than the 1993 Model Energy Code)
  • mix of third-party certification, government certification, and self-certification
  • requires builders to donate unwanted building materials to a non-profit building organization
summary of programs
Summary of Programs
  • overall…
    • program administration
    • voluntary or mandatory
    • program partners
    • levels of certification
    • method of certification
    • number and design of content areas
    • total number of standards
    • number of required standards
why aren t there more green buildings
Why Aren’t There MoreGreen Buildings?
  • decentralized building industry
  • information barriers
  • split incentives
  • transaction costs
  • financial barriers
  • energy costs

Source: Renewable Energy Policy Project (REPP)

1 decentralized building industry
1. Decentralized Building Industry
  • 5.5 million people in construction industry
  • from concept to occupancy, constructing a building requires:
    • developers, architects, landscape architects, site planners, engineers, contractors, craftworkers, interior decorators, realtors, lenders
  • vast number of companies and individuals require education and training in the concepts and techniques of green building before it will become the norm

Source: REPP

2 information barriers
2. Information Barriers
  • builders and consumers often lack reliable information about renewable or energy-efficient technologies
  • consumers lack information about energy consumption of appliances
  • builders lack information on latest techniques and materials used in resource and energy-efficient building
  • government officials lack information about the benefits of green building and how those principles can be applied in their communities

Source: REPP

3 split incentives
3. Split Incentives
  • developers, builders, landlords, and others who choose the structural components and equipment in a building often are not the ones paying the operating costs
  • minimize initial cost outlay to minimize the overall cost of the building

Source: REPP

4 transaction costs
4. Transaction Costs
  • numerous transaction costs combine to emphasize speed in the building process
  • builders “go with what they know”:
    • often less expensive, less efficient products
    • don’t have time to try out new products
    • don’t have time to learn new techniques

Source: REPP

5 financial barriers
5. Financial Barriers
  • many builders and homeowners only look at initial cost
  • technologies that increase the energy efficiency of buildings and substitute renewable energy for fossil fuels usually raise the initial cost of a building.
    • homeowners lack the capital
  • consumers don’t take advantage of the financial incentives that exist to help them
    • energy efficient mortgages (EEMs)

Source: REPP

6 energy costs
6. Energy Costs
  • often small cost of the total budget of building a new home
  • lack of interest on part of consumers leads to lack of action on part of builders

Source: REPP

possible solutions
Possible Solutions
  • overarching problems:
    • education
      • building industry
      • homeowners
      • government officials
    • financial
      • incentives
possible solutions cont
Possible Solutions (cont.)
  • building industry:
    • continuing education and training for the building industry:
      • public (HUD, DOE, EPA)
      • private (NAHB and local HBA)
      • university-level
    • expand local programs:
      • EPA Energy Star
      • Green Advantage (Florida Energy Extension Service)
      • UF Center for Construction and Environment
      • Florida Green Building Coalition (FGBC)
possible solutions cont30
Possible Solutions (cont.)
  • homeowners:
    • education on the benefits of buying green
      • local government
      • GRU
      • Local HBA
      • environmental groups
      • Green Advantage (FEES)
      • EPA Energy Star program
possible solutions cont31
Possible Solutions (cont.)
  • local government:
    • strengthen building codes
      • government sets building codes and regulations to:
        • protect against shoddy craftsmanship
        • promote public health and safety
        • ensure compatible land uses
        • protect community values
      • why not set codes and regulation to require more “greener” construction practices
        • Austin, TX
        • Boulder, CO
        • Frisco, TX
    • require municipal building to be green
    • marketing and technical advice for builders
possible solutions cont32
Possible Solutions (cont.)
  • local government:
    • builder incentives:
      • fast-track permitting
      • reduced builder fees
    • homeowner incentives:
      • GRU
      • property tax exemption
      • energy efficient mortgages (EEMs)
efforts to develop green building codes and standards
Efforts to Develop Green Building Codes and Standards
  • U.S. Green Building Council
    • LEED (commercial buildings)
    • LEEDR (residential)
  • DOE Home Energy Rating Systems (HERS) guidelines
    • EPA Energy Star
    • qualifies homes for EEMs
  • Florida Green Building Coalition
    • third draft of standards
home energy rating systems hers
Home Energy Rating Systems (HERS)
  • developed by DOE in1992
  • 1993: 17 states had HERS
  • today: 49 states have HERS
  • rates the energy-efficiency of new and existing homes
  • rates homes between 0-100
  • qualifies homes for energy efficient mortgages (EEMs)
    • 80 = EEM
    • 86 = Energy Star
home energy rating systems hers cont
Home Energy Rating Systems (HERS) (cont.)
  • home energy rater inspects the home and and measures its energy characteristics:
    • insulation levels
    • window efficiency
    • wall-to-window ratios
    • heating and cooling system efficiency
    • solar orientation of the home
    • efficiency of the water heating system
  • diagnostic testing:
    • blower door test (air leakage)
    • duct leakage test
energy efficient mortgages
Energy Efficient Mortgages
  • mortgage for which either:
    • underwriting guidelines have been relaxed specifically for energy-efficient features, or
    • financial incentives for energy-efficiency
  • new and existing homes
  • HERS score of 80 or above (1993 MEC)
  • more than $2.5 billion in federally-supported EEMs have been issued to date
    • Fannie Mae
    • Freddie Mac
    • HUD-FHA
    • VA
florida green building coalition fgbc
Florida Green Building Coalition (FGBC)
  • non-profit corporation
  • mission: “to provide a statewide Green Building program with environmental and economic benefits.”
  • 5 universities (UF)
  • green building leaders from around the state
  • strong presence in Alachua County
  • latest draft of standards (Appendix B)
  • will begin certifying homes this summer
current status of gb
Current Status of GB
  • Smith-Feinstein Bill
    • proposed January 2001
    • tax credits of $750-2000 for homes that are 30-50% more efficient than the minimum requirements of the 2000 International Energy Conservation Code
    • up to $1,000 for installing solar water heaters
    • up to $6,000 for installing photovoltaic systems
current status of gb cont
Current Status of GB (cont.)
  • U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC)
    • Leadership in Energy and Environmental design (LEED) – commercial buildings
    • LEEDR - national standards for residential green building
  • Frisco, TX
    • newest “beast” of green building programs
    • adopts EPA’s Energy Star as a requirement for new residential construction
  • EPA Green Advantage programs
    • Florida Energy Extension Service
    • “Build Green and Profit,” etc.
current status of gb cont40
Current Status of GB (cont.)
  • EPA Energy Star program
    • 300 homes certified in Alachua Co. in 2000
    • #1 per capita
  • NAHB guide to green builder programs
    • 115 page manual for developing a green builder program
    • designed primarily for use by local HBA chapters
  • local HBA green building programs
  • municipal green building programs
green building programs

Green Building Programs

How to Design a Local Program

nahb epa guide
NAHB/EPA Guide
  • “A Guide to Developing Green Builder Programs”
  • released in April, 1999
  • collaborated effort between the National Association of Home Builders and the Environmental Protection Agency
  • 11-step program
step one
Step One
  • determine member and home buyer interest in/basic knowledge of green building
    • focus groups
    • builder surveys
    • home buyer surveys
step two
Step Two
  • establish a development committee
    • builders
    • remodelers
    • HBA leadership
    • local government
    • lenders
    • realtors
    • environmental building professionals
step three
Step Three
  • set objectives of the program
    • prioritize developmental steps
    • establish goals
      • include the community
        • public sector
        • private sector
      • conduct a workshop
      • obtain feedback
step four
Step Four
  • determine program partners
    • government agencies
    • public utilities
    • building product manufacturers
    • non-profit organizations/foundations
step five
Step Five
  • determine program coverage
    • type of construction (e.g., residential, commercial, governmental, industrial)
    • area (e.g., incorporated city, entire county, only certain neighborhoods, only urban core)
    • builders (e.g., homes, remodeling, light commercial, developers)
step six
Step Six
  • discuss first year budget and structure of program fees
    • year 1: cost to develop and implement program
    • year 2+: cost for staff and advertising; fees for membership
step seven
Step Seven
  • consider the role of existing programs
    • energy
      • EPA Energy Star
      • Edison Electric Institute E Seal
      • Home Energy Rating System (HERS)
    • indoor air quality
      • American Lung Assoc.’s Health House)
    • waste management
      • NAHB/KAB Build America Beautiful
    • energy & resource-efficiency
      • Good Cents EarthChoice or Environmental Home
step eight
Step Eight
  • determine the certification or approval process
    • type of process:
      • self-certification
      • governmental
      • third party
    • type of certification:
      • per unit
      • per builder
      • per development
step nine
Step Nine
  • discuss and establish program resources and activities
    • resources
      • builder handbook
      • GBA resource library
      • national program websites
      • newsletters and promotional materials
    • activities
      • training programs
      • parade of homes
step ten
Step Ten
  • establish key elements of program structure
    • standards (voluntary)
    • levels
    • requirements (involuntary)
    • point-system
    • organize content areas…
step eleven
Step Eleven
  • create program content items
    • energy envelope
    • energy other
    • indoor water conservation
    • outdoor water conservation
    • site design and protection
    • health and environmental quality
    • materials and waste management
gainesville green building program

Gainesville Green Building Program

Facilitated Group Discussion

to Design a Local Program

purpose of workshop
Purpose of Workshop
  • break into assigned groups
  • choose group facilitator/secretary
  • answer questionnaire in group packet (utilize individual packets if necessary)
  • report group findings
  • ask questions/make comments
  • turn-in group packet