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Kenneth S. Law ( 罗胜强 ) 香港中文大学 管理系 IACMR Workshop, 广州 2007 年 7 月 PowerPoint Presentation
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Kenneth S. Law ( 罗胜强 ) 香港中文大学 管理系 IACMR Workshop, 广州 2007 年 7 月 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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调查研究. Kenneth S. Law ( 罗胜强 ) 香港中文大学 管理系 IACMR Workshop, 广州 2007 年 7 月. Different types of studies. Correlational survey studies Experimental laboratory studies Quasi experiments Qualitative studies Qualitative reviews Meta analysis (Quantitative reviews). The Survey Process.

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Kenneth S. Law ( 罗胜强 ) 香港中文大学 管理系 IACMR Workshop, 广州 2007 年 7 月


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    1. 调查研究 Kenneth S. Law (罗胜强)香港中文大学 管理系IACMR Workshop, 广州2007年7月

    2. Different types of studies Correlational survey studies Experimental laboratory studies Quasi experiments Qualitative studies Qualitative reviews Meta analysis (Quantitative reviews)

    3. The Survey Process Idea generation Find some hot topics in the literature Data collection Collect as many related variables as possible around a topic in a survey Data analysis See which pairs of correlations are significant Try to massage the data so as to get good results Use the most up-to-date analytical tools Write up the manuscript Try to build up a story based on the significant results Find a theory related to your results

    4. Issues in survey design • What is the research question? • What are the hypotheses? • Measure your construct of interest • What is your level of analysis? • What is your data source? • Use validated scales if possible • The scale development process • Multidimensional constructs • Pilot test • Convergent & Discriminant Validity • Issues in Questionnaire design • How to collect data? • Data analysis

    5. 1. What is your research question? What is your contribution to the literature? Is the research question testable? Are the constructs well defined? Do we have enough validated scales to measure the constructs? Are the relationships well justified?

    6. Contributions • Theoretical contributions • New constructs • New phenomena • New findings • New perspectives • Methodological contributions • New measures (e.g., new scale development) • New methods (e.g., cross-level research)

    7. What are theoretical contributions? A complete theory should contain four elements • What.Which factors logically should be considered as part of the explanation of the phenomena? (factor comprehensiveness and parsimony) • How.How are they related? • Why.What are the underlying psychological, economic, or social dynamics that justify the selection of factors and the proposed causal relationships? • Who, where, when.These conditions place limitations on the propositions generated from a theoretical model. Whetten, D.A. (1989) What constitute a theoretical contribution. AMR, 1494), 490-495.

    8. Job Design Job Characteristics Model Hackman & Oldham (1976) MPS Job Satisfaction Social Information Processing Model Salancik & Pfeffer (1978) Job Satisfaction Perceived job characteristics

    9. Why employees want fairness? Procedural vs. Distributive justice Instrumental Model Group Value Model Folger & Konovsky (1989)

    10. A research question Self concept Downsizing Outsourcing Re-engineering Productivity

    11. Workplace Self Concept Self Concept Sociology Identification Psychology WSC Evaluation Workplace

    12. 2. Is the research question testable? What is your contribution to the literature? Is the research question testable? Are the constructs well defined? Do we have enough validated scales to measure the constructs? Are the relationships well justified?

    13. 生涯情况 信息 目标 计划 资源 候迭人 的信息 探索的动机 生活的 目标 1.个人战略 2.时间 1.解决个人 问题的技能 2.控制 1.自我评估 价值技术 兴趣 经验 2.组织评估 表现潜力 分配计划 执行 生涯计划 生涯发展目标 现有内部劳资市场 1.工作调整需要 2.生涯之路结构 3.内部提升 生涯机会信息 1.生涯信息系统 2.生涯咨询 1.未来组织 经济目标 2.未来所需 职工 1.组织人才资 源发展战略 2.重要职务分 配 1.工作机会 2.赞助人 3.生涯管理者 生涯管理要素图

    14. 3. Are the constructs well defined? What is your contribution to the literature? Is the research question testable? Are the constructs well defined? Do we have enough validated scales to measure the constructs? Are the relationships well justified?

    15. A research question • Workplace Self Concept (WSC) • General Self Efficacy • Organizational-Based Self Esteem • Core Self Evaluation Downsizing Outsourcing Re-engineering Productivity

    16. Construct validity Self Efficacy Workplace Self Concept Discriminant validity Core Self Evaluation Convergent Validity

    17. Content validity Workplace Self Concept include: • Supervisor • Subordinate • Colleague • Employee • Career

    18. 4. Measurement Issues What is your contribution to the literature? Is the research question testable? Are the constructs well defined? Do we have enough validated scales to measure the constructs? Are the relationships well justified?

    19. Use Established Scales Self Emotion Appraisal 通常我能知道自己為什麼會有某些感受。 我很瞭解自己的情緒。 我真的能明白自己的感受。 我常常知道自己為什麼覺得開心或不高興。 Regulation of Emotion 遇到困難時,我能控制自己的脾氣。 我很能控制自己的情緒。 當我憤怒時,我通常能在很短的時間內冷靜下來。 我對自己的情緒有很強的控制能力。 Use of Emotion 我通常能為自己制訂目標並儘量完成這些目標。 我經常告訴自己是一個有能力的人。 我是一個能鼓勵自己的人。 我經常鼓勵自己要做到最好。 Other's Emotion Appraisal 我通常能從朋友的行為中猜到他們的情緒。 我觀察別人情緒的能力很強。 我能很敏銳地洞悉別人的感受和情緒。 我很瞭解身邊的人的情緒。 • Law, K.S., Wong, C. & Song, L.J. (2004). The construct and criterion validity of emotional intelligence and its potential utility for management studies, JAP, 89(3)483-496. • Wong, C., Law, K.S. (2002). The effects of leader and follower emotional intelligence on performance and attitude: An exploratory study. The Leadership Quarterly, 13, 243-274.

    20. 5. Hypotheses What is your contribution to the literature? Is the research question testable? Are the constructs well defined? Do we have enough validated scales to measure the constructs? Are the relationships well justified?

    21. A research question • Are there existing empirical evidence to support the hypothesis? • Are there un-obvious logical arguments to justify your hypothesis? • Is there a theoretical perspective to justify your hypothesis?

    22. Three possible arguments • Bass and Bentler (2001) found that followers who followed transformational leaders have a stronger vision of where the firm is heading to. As a result, we hypothesize that …… • A transformational leader leads by creating visions for his/her followers. They share their visions with their followers and communicate with their followers continuous on these visions. Since mission and vision is a core component of organizational commitment, we hypothesize that…… • According to the social exchange theory, leader-follower relationship that engages in social exchange would expect long term reciprocity instead of immediate reward, we therefore hypothesized that ……

    23. Issues in survey design • What is the research question? • What are the hypotheses? • Measure your construct of interest • What is your level of analysis? • What is your data source? • Use validated scales if possible • The scale development process • Formative vs. Reflective indicators • Multidimensional constructs • Pilot test • Issues in Questionnaire design • How to collect data? • Data analysis

    24. 3. Measure your construct of interest • What is your level of analysis? • What is your data source? • Use validated scales if possible • The scale development process • Formative vs. Reflective indicators • Multidimensional constructs

    25. 3a. Level of Analysis • Individual level/group level/firm level/industry level/cross level Example: • The effects of LMX on employee performance. • On the antecedents and outcomes of group-level OCB. • The effect of HRM practices on firm performance • The effect of HRM practices on the job satisfaction of employees.

    26. 3a. Level of Analysis Perceived Organizational Support Organizational Citizenship Behaviors Firm Performance General Manager Employees Employees No. of firms = 98 No. of employees per firm ≈ 15

    27. 3. Measure your construct of interest • What is your level of analysis? • What is your data source? • Use validated scales if possible • The scale development process • Formative vs. Reflective indicators • Multidimensional constructs

    28. 3b Data source and CMV Try to solicit data (esp. predictor vs. criterion variables) from different sources. The problem of common method variance (CMV)

    29. A Method Factor Organizational commitment (affective)不同意 同意 1.我很樂意在此家公司中渡過我餘下的生涯。 1 2 3 4 5 2.這家公司所面臨的問題就是我自己的問題。 1 2 3 4 5 3.我有很強地屬於「這家公司的人」的感覺。 1 2 3 4 5 Turnover Intention 7. 我很少想到辭職。 1 2 3 4 5 8. 我不可能在明年另尋新的工作。 1 2 3 4 5 9. 如果能自由選擇,我仍然喜歡留在這機構工作。1 2 3 4 5

    30. Rotated Factor Matrix in EFA Factors Var A B C X1.29.60-.06 X2.32.81.12 X3.35.77.03 X4.27.01.65 X5.41.03.80 X6 .40.12.67 Organizational commitment Turnover intention

    31. One Factor Test Dc2 ** x x1 x2 X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6

    32. An example HRM practices of the firm Individual performance of employees Degree of social exchange in the organization Source of information: Middle managers Top level managers HR manager

    33. Different methods/sources Organizational commitment Organizational culture • Notreported by employee • rites and ceremonials • Self reported by employee reported by employee reported by supervisor/peer

    34. 3. Measure your construct of interest • What is your level of analysis? • What is your data source? • Use validated scales if possible. • The scale development process • Formative vs. Reflective indicators • Multidimensional constructs

    35. 3c Using existing scales • Adapting measures • Ratee perceptionswas measured by a four-item scale adapted from Atwater et al. (2000) • What has changed? Why? • Adopting measures • Moorman (1991) has seven items measuring procedural justice • Procedural justice was measured by three items from Moorman (1991) • Combining measures • Perception of rater credibility was measured by a six-item scale adapted from Kerst (1997) and Facteau et al. (1998). • Perceived demographic similarity was measured using four single-item measures based on work by Kirchmeyer (1995), Louis (1978), and Riordan (1997, 2000).

    36. What measure to be used? • Use full scale of existing validated scales • Select items only when you have perfect justifications • Use scales that have been validated (esp. cross culturally) • Develop you own measure when you have a strong reason that existing measures do not fit; or there is no good measure of the construct.

    37. 3c Using existing scales Measure Wedevelopedfive items to measure emotional intelligence in this study. One sample item is “I am able to control my temper most of the time.” Coefficient a of the five items was .89. • Problems • We do not know how the items are developed. • There is no evidence of validity of the items. • We do not know whether you have done any item trimming or not. • If yes, we do not know the criteria of item selection.

    38. 3c Using existing scales • Follow the proper procedure of scale translation. • The minimum requirement is a forward-backward translation. • It is best to pre-test your (translated) scale before use.

    39. 3. Measure your construct of interest • What is your level of analysis? • What is your data source? • Use validated scales if possible • The scale development process • Formative vs. Reflective indicators • Multidimensional constructs

    40. 3d. Developing new scales • Inductive • Usually behavioral measures of constructs • E.g., Managers write statements to describe behaviors of a transformational leader • Researcher group all items and sort them into various dimensions using systematic classification techniques • Select items to represent each dimension • Pretesting of the scale Inductive vs. deductive approach for scale development

    41. Developing new scales • Deductive • Start with theory to determine the dimensionality of the construct • For each and every dimension, draft items to represent the dimension • Pretesting of the scale • Item trimming • Final validation

    42. 3e. Formative vs. Reflective indicators z Income Relax e1 Socio-economic status Life satisfaction Happy e2 Parent’s income Positive e3 Size of apartment Reflective or effect indicators Formative or causal indicators Please give one example of each type of construct

    43. 3f. Multidimensional constructs Quality Aggregate Model Job Performance Quantity On-time Math Mental Ability Latent Model Verbal Memory

    44. Issues in survey design • What is the research question? • What are the hypotheses? • Measure your construct of interest • What is your level of analysis? • What is your data source? • Use validated scales if possible • The scale development process • Formative vs. Reflective indicators • Multidimensional constructs • Pilot test • Issues in Questionnaire design • How to collect data? • Data analysis? • Convergent & Discriminant Validity • Confirmatory Factor Analysis • Mediators and moderators • Cross level analysis

    45. 4. Pilot Test • Item trimming (EFA) • Factor loading >.4 • Low cross loading • Item difficulty/Item reliability • Never trim items based on EFA and then retest with a CFA using the same sample • Cross validation

    46. Issues in survey design • What is the research question? • What are the hypotheses? • Measure your construct of interest • What is your level of analysis? • What is your data source? • Use validated scales if possible • The scale development process • Formative vs. Reflective indicators • Multidimensional constructs • Pilot test • Issues in Questionnaire design • How to collect data? • Data analysis

    47. 5. Questionnaire Design • Question sequencing • Dependent variables first • Randomization? • Grouping of constructs • Length of questionnaire (# of pages) • What constructs to include (two papers but not too long) 第三部分 下面這些陳述是有關您自己對工作及醫院的一些想法。對於每一题目,請在後面最能代表您的意見的選項上畫圈。

    48. Issues in survey design • What is the research question? • What are the hypotheses? • Measure your construct of interest • What is your level of analysis? • What is your data source? • Use validated scales if possible • The scale development process • Formative vs. Reflective indicators • Multidimensional constructs • Pilot test • Issues in Questionnaire design • How to collect data? • Data analysis

    49. 6.Data collection • Minimum N is 1:5 (one respondent for each item within a construct) • Minimum N: >100 for group level; >200 for individual level • You should be there during data collection. • Questionnaire distribution – the higher the level the better

    50. Issues in survey design • What is the research question? • What are the hypotheses? • Measure your construct of interest • What is your level of analysis? • What is your data source? • Use validated scales if possible • The scale development process • Formative vs. Reflective indicators • Multidimensional constructs • Pilot test • Issues in Questionnaire design • How to collect data? • Data analysis