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Kenneth A. LaBel Radiation Effects and Analysis Group Leader PowerPoint Presentation
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  1. An Insider's Guide to Designing Spacecraft Systems and Instruments for Operation in the Natural Space Radiation Environment Kenneth A. LaBel Radiation Effects and Analysis Group Leader Electronics Radiation Characterization Project Manager Living with a Star Space Environment Testbed Experiments Manager ken.label@gsfc.nasa.gov Janet L. Barth Living with a Star Space Environment Testbed Manager GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar, April 5, 2001

  2. Acknowledgements • The entire Radiation Effects and Analysis Group at GSFC • Allan Johnston and Chuck Barnes at JPL • NASA HQ Code AE for supporting the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program • Lew Cohn at Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) • The designers and systems engineers I’ve had the privilege to work with • Martha O’Bryan for graphics support GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  3. Abstract • In this talk, we will discuss the implications of the natural space radiation environment on spacecraft systems with a focus on microelectronic and photonic technologies. Included topic areas are • A review of the environment and basic effects on technologies, • Concerns over emerging technologies, and, • System level method for radiation hardness assurance (RHA) including a discussion of mitigative approaches. GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  4. Outline • Introduction • Why radiation is a concern for modern space systems • The Natural Space Radiation Environment • Basic Radiation Effects • NASA and Radiation Requirements • Radiation and Technology • System Level Approach to Radiation Hardness Assurance (RHA) • Mitigating Radiation Effects in Electronics • Ground-based Radiation Effects Research: Recent Highlights • Final Comments GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  5. Introduction

  6. SOHO/LASCO C3July 14, 2000 GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  7. Radiation May Affect: • Microelectronics* • Photonics* • Materials • Coatings/epoxies/etc. • Humans/biological systems * Focus of this talk GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  8. Spacecraft Design Reality Programmatic Considerations: Technical Considerations: • Reduced Cost • Use of Flight Heritage Designs • Mass-Buy Procurement • Decreased Procurement Lead Times • Overlapping Development Schedules • Reduced Manpower • Reduced Weight • Reduced Power Consumption • Increased Performance Requirements • Increasingly Complex Sensor Arrays • Decreased Availability of Rad-hard Devices GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  9. >$100B Circa 1998 100 90 80 1 8 Rad-Resist [<108 rad/s, <105 rad] 1 6 Rad-Hard [> 108 rad/s, >105 rad] 70 1 4 1 2 Number of Rad Tolerand Microelectronics Manufacturers 60 1 0 Billions of Dollars 8 6 50 4 2 2 A nalog/ 2 Digi tal 40 0 1 9 8 5 1 9 9 3 1 9 9 5 30 20 10 $1.4B (~1%) $0.4B (<0.25%) World NASA/Military RH/RT 0 Semiconductor Semiconductor Semiconductor Market Market Market The Space Semiconductor Market - Reduced Options for Risk Avoidance GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  10. Increased Radiation Awareness - Three Prime Technical Drivers • Commercial and emerging technology devices are more susceptible (and in some cases have new radiation effects) than their predecessors. • Limited radiation hardened device availability • There is much greater uncertainty about radiation hardness because of limited control and frequent process changes associated with commercial processes. • With a minimization of spacecraft size and the use of composite structures, • Amount of effective shielding against the radiation environment has been greatly reduced, increasing the internal environment at the device. • THESE THREE DRIVERS IMPLY THAT WE ARE USING MORE RADIATION SENSITIVE DEVICES WITH LESS PROTECTION. GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  11. Sample Microelectronics Issue Affecting Spacecraft • Use of Ultra-Low Power (ULP) Electronics • Reduces spacecraft power consumption requirements • Requires reduced solar arrays and batteries • Reduces thermal loads which in turn require reduced structural housing • Overall effect: • Orders of magnitude reduction in size/mass/power and cost • Radiation risks? GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  12. The Natural Space Radiation Environment

  13. Space Radiation Environment Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) Solar Protons & Heavier Ions Trapped Particles Protons, Electrons, Heavy Ions Nikkei Science, Inc. of Japan, by K. Endo Janet Barth http://radhome.gsfc.nasa.gov/radhome/papers/apl_922.pdf GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  14. Source Modulator Protons Galactic Cosmic Rays Atmospheric Neutrons Heavier Ions Trapped Particles Trapped Particles Sun:Dominates the Environment A True Dynamic System GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  15. 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1947 1997 Sunspot Cycle after Lund Observatory Cycle 19 Cycle 20 Cycle 21 Cycle 22 Cycle 18 Sunspot Numbers Years Length Varies from 9 - 13 Years 7 Years Solar Maximum, 4 Years Solar Minimum GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  16. Gradual Solar Events • Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) • Particles Accelerated by Shock Wave • Largest Proton Events • Decay of X-Ray Emission Occurs Over Several Hours • Large Distribution in Solar Longitude Holloman AFB/SOON GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  17. Impulsive Solar Events • Solar Flares • Particles Accelerated Directly • Heavy Ion Rich • Sharp Peak in X-Ray Emission • Concentrated Solar Longitude Distribution GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  18. Solar Particle Events • Results in Increased Levels of Protons & Heavier Ions • Energies • Protons - 100s of MeV • Heavier Ions - 100s of GeV • Abundances Dependent on Radial Distance from Sun • Partially Ionized - Greater Ability to Penetrate Magnetosphere Than Galactic Cosmic Rays • Number & Intensity of Events Increases Dramatically During Solar Maximum • Models • Total Ionizing Dose & Displacement Damage Dose - SOLPRO, JPL, Xapsos/NRL • Single Event Effects - CREME96 (Protons & Heavier Ions) GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  19. Sunspot Cycle with Solar Proton Events Proton Event Fluences Smoothed Sunspot Numbers Protons (#/cm2) Year GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  20. Solar Proton Event - October 1989 Protons & Electrons - Magnetic Field 99% Worst Case Event Counts/cm2/s/ster/MeV nT GOES Space Environment Monitor GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  21. 4 1 0 Z = 2 - 92 3 1 0 2 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 - 1 1 0 - 2 1 0 - 3 1 0 - 4 GEO 1 0 GTO - 5 1 0 MEO - 6 1 0 EOS - 7 LEO 1 0 - 8 1 0 - 1 0 1 2 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 GCRs: Integral Linear Energy Transfer (LET) Spectra CREME 96, Solar Minimum, 100 mils (2.54 mm) Al LET Fluence (#/cm2/day) LET (MeV-cm2/mg) GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  22. 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Trapped Proton & Electron Intensities AP-8 Model AE-8 Model Ep > 10 MeV Ee > 1 MeV #/cm2/sec #/cm2/sec L-Shell NASA/GSFC GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  23. SRAM Upset Rate on CRUX/APEXSouth Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) and the Proton Belt GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  24. Solar Cycle Effects • Solar Maximum • Trapped Proton Levels Lower, Electrons Higher • GCR Levels Lower • Neutron Levels in the Atmosphere Are Lower • Solar Events More Frequent & Greater Intensity • Magnetic Storms More Frequent --> Can Increase Particle Levels in Belts • Solar Minimum • Trapped Protons Higher, Electrons Lower • GCR Levels Higher • Neutron Levels in the Atmosphere Are Higher • Solar Events Are Rare GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  25. Magnetic Storm and the Electron Belts Space Weather Effect Courtesy: R. Ecofett/CNES GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  26. Basic Radiation Effects

  27. Radiation Effects and Spacecraft • Critical areas for design in the natural space radiation environment • Long-term effects • Total ionizing dose (TID) • Displacement damage dose(DDD) • Transient or single particle effects (Single event effects or SEE) • Soft or hard errors • Mission requirements and philosophies vary to ensure mission performance • What works for a shuttle mission may not apply to a deep-space mission GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  28. Total Ionizing Dose • Cumulative long term ionizing damage due to protons & electrons • Effects • Threshold Shifts • Leakage Current • Timing Skew • Functional Failures • Can partially mitigate with shielding • Low energy protons • Electrons GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  29. Displacement Damage Dose • Cumulative long term non-ionizing damage due to protons, electrons, and neutrons • Effects • Production of defects which results in device degradation • May be similar toTID effects • Optocouplers, solar cells, CCDs, linear bipolar devices • Shielding has some effect - depends on location of device • Can eliminate electron damage • Reduce some proton damage GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  30. Single Event Effects • Event caused by a single charged particle • Heavy ions • Protons for sensitive devices • Effects • Non-destructive: SEU, SET, MBU, SEBE, SHE • Destructive: SEL, SEGR, SEB • Severity is dependent on • type of effect • system criticality • Shielding has little effect GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  31. Radiation Effects: The Root Cause in the Natural Radiation Environments • Total Ionizing Dose • Trapped Protons & Electrons • Solar Protons • Single Event Effects • Protons • Trapped • Solar • Heavier Ions • Galactic Cosmic Rays • Solar Events • Neutrons • Displacement Damage • Protons • Electrons • Spacecraft Charging • Surface • Plasma • Deep Dielectric • High Energy Electrons • Background Interference on Instruments GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  32. NASA and Radiation Requirements

  33. NASA and Radiation Requirements • NASA deals with the natural space (or atmospheric) radiation environment only • Radiation effects on NASA technology are limited to: • Total ionizing dose (TID) • Displacement Damage Dose (DDD) • Single Event Effect (SEE) • Induced radiation environments are not a direct concern to NASA • Note: induced secondaries are of concern • The following chart illustrates relative NASA requirements versus mission types • Note: TID levels noted assume a nominal amount of effective shielding GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  34. Radiation Device Regimes for the Natural Space Environment • High • > 100 krads (Si) • May have • long mission duration • intense single event environment • intense displacement damage environment • Moderate • 10-100 krads (Si) • May have • medium mission duration • intense single event environment • moderate displacement damage environment • Low • < 10 krads (Si) • May have • short mission duration • moderate single event environment • low displacement damage environment Examples: Europa, GTO, MEO Type of device: Rad hard (RH) Examples: EOS, highLEO, L1, L2, ISSA Type of device needed: Rad tolerant (RT) Examples: HST, Shuttle, XTE Type of device needed: SOTA commercial with SEE mitigation Aeronautics must deal with neutron SEE environment GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  35. NASA Missions • Approximately 225 missions are currently in some stage of development • Some are large (ex., International Space Station (ISS)) • Some are small (ex. ST-5 nanosats, part of the New Millenium Program) • Many are in the middle (ex,, MIDEX - medium class explorers) • All are trying to conserve resources • Programmatic: funds, manpower, schedule, etc. • Technical: power, weight, volume, etc. GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  36. Mix of NASA Missions and Radiation Requirements • Informal study has been performed of percent of missions in each category GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  37. Implications of NASA Mission Mix • SEE tolerant is the major current need • “Radiation Tolerant” covers a large percentage of NASA needs • “Commercial” (non-hardened) devices or even boards and systems may be acceptable for some NASA missions (with the risks associated with commercial devices) • Even the low radiation requirement offers challenges for commercial devices • Example: Hubble Space Telescope has noted numerous anomalies on commercial microelectronics • Projects with rad hard needs struggle to meet requirements • Limited device availability or implications of adding mitigation • An increase in available rad hard technologies opens the door for mission options that are desirable but not currently thought to be feasible • Ex., Enables routine operation and science in MEO and Deep Space • Two Further Notes: • Aero-Space (avionics/terrestrial) has issues with soft errors (typically induced by secondary neutrons) • NASA designs use all types of microelectronics from true rad-hard to Radio Shack COTS (Ex., shuttle experiment) GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  38. Next Generation Space Telescope: Electronics Drivers • Radiation hazards (L2 Libation Point, launch 2009) • GCR, solar particle events, trapped electrons • Radiation requirements • Mostly radiation tolerant needs, however… • Non-radiation drivers • Instrument requirements (IR detectors) • Ultra-low noise (better than the state-of-the-art) • Cold temperature • Mirrors, Deployable Structures, Optical Fiber • Philosophy • Analysis underway; Testing expected GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  39. International Space Station:Electronics Drivers • Radiation hazards (low earth, 57 deg inclination) • Primarily trapped protons, some GCR and solar particles • Radiation requirements • High amounts of effective shielding • Proton upset is prime driver; GCR is secondary • Non-radiation drivers • Large amounts of hardware • Serviceable • Philosophy • Use off COTS and COTS boards • Use proton ground tests to qualify hardware (controversial) Ziatech ZT-6500 3U Compact PCI Pentium Board. GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  40. Space Shuttle: Electronics Drivers • Radiation hazards (Mostly ISS orbits) • Trapped particles, some GCR and solar particles • Radiation requirements • Shuttle upgrades require radiation tolerant • Experiments have none other than fail-safe • Non-radiation drivers • Serviceable • Short duration • Performance not a driver • Philosophy • Radio Shack for experiments GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  41. Europa: Electronics Drivers • Radiation hazards (Jovian Deep Space) • Trapped particles (electrons!), GCR, solar particles • Radiation requirements • High • Non-radiation drivers • 7 year storage of many instruments and systems • Temperature range • Philosophy • Rad hard where they can • Custom Rad hard ASICs • Mitigation/shielding where they can’t GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  42. Radiation and Technology

  43. Technology Triumvirate for Insertion Into Spaceflight Technology Development Ground Test, Protocols, and Models Reliable Technology for Space Systems On-orbit Experiments and Model Validation GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  44. NASA Technology Programs • Technology Development • Cross Enterprise Technology Development Program (CETDP) • Individual NASA Enterprises • Individual Flight Programs/Projects • Technology Ground Evaluation • Electronic Radiation Characterization Project (ERC) (a portion of the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program) • Individual Flight Programs/Projects • Flight Validation • New Millennium Program • Emphasizes system and sub-system level validation • Living With a Star/Space Environment Testbed (SET) • Emphasizes technologies that are affected by solar variability (re: ionizing radiation) • Develops prediction models, tool, and guidelines GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  45. Desirable Features for Future NASA Missions - Factors Affecting Microelectronics • Higher functional integration/density • System-on-a-chip • Modular system design • Advanced packaging techniques • Low and ultra-low power • Fault tolerant • Reconfigurable systems • Rapid prototyping/simulation • Scalable real-time multiprocessing • Operation at hot/cold temperature • High-bandwidth (communications, free space interconnects, etc.) • Increased processing capability • On-board autonomy, data reduction • Integrated power management and distribution • Increased reliability • Increased availability, reduced cost, … • Radiation tolerance GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  46. NASA Needs for Microelectronics Technology • In general, NASA is tasked to • reduce time-to-launch (faster) • increase system performance (better), and • reduce spacecraft and instrumentsize and power as well as ground-based manpower (cheaper). • This implies that NASA microelectronics require • increased technical performance (bandwidth, power consumption, volume, etc.), and • increased programmatic performance (availability, cost, reliability). • Radiation tolerance is the “red-headed stepchild” of this process. • Current programs often “waive” or reduce reliability/radiation tolerance issues or design workarounds • “True” cost of commercial versus radiation hardened is often misunderstood GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  47. Procurement Screening Radiation Testing Availability Development Tools Sample Cost Factors for Selecting Commercial Versus Rad Hard Device • Prototypes • Manpower • Shielding • Circuit Mitigation • Development Path - Technical (re: need for Mflops) may be the driver over cost - Other factor to consider: risk GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  48. Microelectronics Technologies for NASA Roadmap - Breakthrough Bandwidth/Speed High Performance SOI SiGe InP InAs Deep Sub-micron CMOS Photonics RT Libraries/ Tools VCSELs SiGe on SOI Terrestrial Soft Error Enhancements Integrated Optoelectronics Novel Detectors Others: RT GaAs, Chalcogenide, Si on Diamond, ... GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  49. Microelectronics Technologies for NASA Roadmap - Breakthrough Volume Enabling parameter reductions Advanced Processing Techniques Ultra-low Power MEMS Advanced Packaging Integrated ICs SOC* ASICs SiGe on SOI CULPRiT Cu Interconnects FPGAs Linewidth, Density,… * = system-on-a-chip: may include numerous technologies including mixed signals (analog/digital) on single substrate GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001

  50. Radiation Issues for Newer Technologies • Proton induced single event upsets • Proton induced single event latchup • Neutron & Alpha induced upsets • Single events in Dynamic RAMs • Displacement damage in electronics • Single event functional interrupt • Stuck bits • Block errors in Dynamic RAMs • Single event transients • Neutron induced single event effects • Hard failures & latchup conditions • Multiple upsets from a single particle • Feature size versus particle track • Microdose • Enhanced low dose rate sensitivity (ELDRS) • Reduced shielding • Test methods for advanced packaged devices • Ultra-high speed & novel devices (e.g., photonics, InP, SiGe) • Design margins & mitigation • COTS variability • At-speed testing • Application-specific sensitivities In general, however, TID tolerance of deep submicron CMOS is improving GSFC Systems Engineering Seminar - April 5, 2001