ARCHITECTURAL REGISTRATION EXAMINATION PRE-DESIGN SEMINAR Presented By Kenneth W. Hargrove, AIA, NCARB
ARE Pre-Design Seminar ARCHITECTURAL PROJECT PHASES
ARE Pre-Design Seminar PRE-DESIGN: PROJECT PLANNING PHASE DELIVERABLES DOCUMENT PLANNING SCHEDULE DEVELOPMENT FEE PROJECTIONS ASSEMBLING THE TEAM ARCHITECTURAL PROGRAMMING BUILDING TYPE STUDY CLIENT INTERACTION SITE ANALYSIS FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS COST ANALYSIS CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION
ARE Pre-Design Seminar PART I PROJECT PLANNING
ARE Pre-Design Seminar PROJECT PLANNING PHASE DELIVERABLES DOCUMENT PLANNING SCHEDULE DEVELOPMENT FEE PROJECTIONS ASSEMBLING THE TEAM
ARE Pre-Design Seminar PHASE DELIVERABLES SCHEMATIC DESIGN – Documents required to describe the general design intent, general relationships and space requirements of the project along with cost projections. PROGRAMMING SHOULD BE COMPLETE IF NOT IT MUST BE COMPLETED IN SCHEMATIC DESIGN ARCHITECTURAL MUST LEAD CONSULTANTS ASSIST THE SCHEMATIC DESIGN PROCESS TO DEFINE SYSTEMS AND COSTS
ARE Pre-Design Seminar PHASE DELIVERABLES DESIGN DEVELOPMENT – Enough description of QUANTITY and QUALITY to confirm budget projections, inform the client of what to expect and to guide consultants through Construction Documents. FLOOR PLANS, RCP,S ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS SHOULDB BE TACT DOWN FOR CONSULTANTS TO FOLLOW INTERIOR ELEVATIONS, MILLWORK AND EQUIPMENT SHOULD BE SUFFICENT FOR OWNER REVIEW AND APPROVAL FRONT END SECTIONS SHOULD BE READY FOR OWNER REVIEW AND APPROVAL SYSTEMS AND FIXTURE CUTS SHOULD BE READY FOR OWNER REVIEW AND APPROVAL COST PROJECTTIONS
ARE Pre-Design Seminar DOCUMENT PLANNING CONTRACT DOCUMENTS – Final bid set of working drawings and specifications. Must describe everything that is important to the success of the project. Estimate Time to Produce Items on the Sheet Sheet Name and Number GENERAL and SCHEDULES - A100 PLANS (FLOOR, ROOF, RCP)– A200 BUILDING ELEVATIONS – A300 BUILDING and WALL SECTIONS – A400 ENLARGED PLANS and SECTIONS – A500 PLAN DETAILS – A600 SECTION DETAILS – A700 WALL ELEVATIONS – A800 SPECILTY ITEM DETAILING – A900
ARE Pre-Design Seminar DOCUMENT PLANNING
ARE Pre-Design Seminar PROJECT SCHEDULE: BAR GRAPHS – simply indicate the start and finish dates of major phases of the work. They are better as a form of visual communication but inferior to a CPM schedule as a management tool. CPM SCHEDULES – also indicate the start and finish dates of major phases, but , also indicate the relationships between the sequence of activities and the dependency of activities on each other within the phases FLOAT TIME CALENDER DAYS WORKING DAYS FASTTRACKING
ARE Pre-Design Seminar CONTRACTS PROGRAMING SCHEMATIC DESIGN DESIGN DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT DOCUMENTS BID PHASE CLIENT REVIEWS ARCHITECTURAL REVIEWS : PROJECT DESIGN SCHEDULE:
ARE Pre-Design Seminar FEE PROJECTIONS -TOP DOWN METHOD PROJECT TITLE PROJECTED CONSTRUCTION COST TRADITIONAL FEE % TOTAL PROFESSIONAL FEE
ARE Pre-Design Seminar FEE PROJECTIONS - TOP DOWN METHOD TRADITIONAL CONSULTANT % CIVIL – 10.5% STRUCTURAL – 9.4% MECHANICAL – 15% ELECTRICAL – 12.5% OTHER CONSULTANTS ? PROFIT – 20% (Are they appropriate for this project?) ESTIMATE EXPENSES SET ASIDE PROFIT PHASE PROJECTIONS (Useful in evaluation consultant invoices.) (Why are phase totals Not equal to %?) (OWNERS MAY REQUEST INVOICE PROJECTIONS) PRODUCTION FEE AVAILABLE
ARE Pre-Design Seminar FEE PROJECTIONS - TOP DOWN METHOD TRADITIONAL PHASE % SCHEMATIC DESIGN – 15% DESIGN DEVELOPMENT – 15% CONSTRUCTION DOC. – 35% BID – 5% CONST. OBSERVATION – 30% (Are they appropriate for this project?) PERSONEL & BILLABLE RATES IS THERE ENOUGH FEE FOR EACH PHASE? ARE WE USING THE RIGHT PERSONEL MIX? IS THIS OUR AVERAGE PERSONEL RATE?
ARE Pre-Design Seminar CONSULTANT CONTRACTS: One of the chief functions of an architect is to assemble and coordinate / orchestrate, a team of specialists to create a functional design. To unite the separate skills of the contributing specialists around a central theme, to give form to an idea.
ARE Pre-Design Seminar CONSULTANT CONTRACTS: Make sure all services expected, deliverables, formatting issues and time limits are understood up front Determine systems and Establish Budgetary Goals Early.
ARE Pre-Design Seminar CONSULTANT CONTRACTS: The Architect must deliver in time for consultants to perform. Require Consultants complete documents in time for thorough coordination of systems and documents. Hold Consultants responsible for maintaining Budget Goals.
ARE Pre-Design Seminar PART II PROGRAMMING
ARE Pre-Design Seminar ARCHITECTURAL PROGRAMMING PROCESS FRAMEWORK NEEDS HUMAN PROPORTIONS BUILDING TYPE STUDY FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS CODE ANALYSIS COST ANALYSIS CONTEXT FORM CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT EVALUATION
ARE Pre-Design Seminar ARCHITECTURAL PROGRAMMING The process of identification and systematic organization of the functional, architectural, structural, mechanical, aesthetic and budgetary criteria which guide decision making in the design of buildings .Good Programming is achieved through a well structured PROCESS and a comprehensive FRAMEWORK for organizing information
ARE Pre-Design Seminar PROGRAMMING PROCESS Client / architect INTERACTION and effective COMMUNICATION is essential to the programming process
ARE Pre-Design Seminar PROGRAMMING PROCESS Programming is and should be done independently of architectural design. However, the process rarely ends when the program is published. Discovery, Expression and Verification require revisiting assumptions, concepts and conclusions.
ARE Pre-Design Seminar PROGRAMMING PROCESS Programming is often performed in three phases: BROAD OBJECTIVES AND PROBLEMS ARE STATED FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS ARE DISCRIBED BY SIZE AND RELATIONSHIPS DETAILED REQUIREMENTS ARE DEVELOPED
ARE Pre-Design Seminar DFW Terminal “D” Parking Garage CIRCULATION CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT
PEDESTRIAN HORIZONTAL CIRCULATION PEDESTRIAN VERTICAL CIRCULATION VEHICULAR HORIVONTAL CIRCULATION ARE Pre-Design Seminar CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT POSITIVES: SEPERATED SHORT TERM AND LONG TERM VEHICULAR CIRCULATION LOOPS SEPARATED VEHICLE AND PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION NEGATIVES: POCKETED PARKING ZONES WEAK UNDERSTANDING OF HELIX RAMPS HELIX RAMPS ARE COMPACT BUT REQUIRE MORE COMPLEX CIRCULATION TO ACCESS CREATING MORE COMPLEX DECISIONS AND CONJESTION HELIX RAMPS SLOW TRAFFIC CIRCULATION AND DIVERT CIRCULATION TO CURBSIDE PARKING LAYOUT PARALLEL TO DESTINATION, REQUIRING PATRONS TO THREAD THROUGH PARKED CARS VEHICLE VERTICAL CIRCULATION
ARE Pre-Design Seminar CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT THE DOUBLE HELIX
ARE Pre-Design Seminar CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT POSITIVES: CENTRAL EXPRESS RAMP IS DESTINATION ORIENTED AND REDUCE TRAFFIC AT CURBSIDE SEPARATED VEHICLE AND PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION PARKING LANES AT RIGHT ANGLES TO DESTINATION, ENABLE PATRONS TO WALK DIRECTLY TOWARD THE DESTINATION WITHOUT THREADING THROUGH PARKED CARS CENTRAL VEHICULAR CIRCULATION REDUCES POCKETED ZONES AND INCREASES EFFICENCY NEGATIVES: CENTERAL EXPRESS RAMP INCREASES VERTICAL VEHICULAR CIRCULATION SPEED AND CREATE FEWER BUT MORE INTENSE INTERSECTIONS SHORT TERM & LONG TERM VEHICULAR CIRCULATION LOOPS ARE LESS DEFINED
ARE Pre-Design Seminar CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT POSITIVES: PERIMETER EXPRESS RAMP IS DESTINATION ORIENTED AND REDUCE TRAFFIC AT CURBSIDE SEPARATED VEHICLE AND PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION PARKING LANES AT RIGHT ANGLES TO DESTINATION, ENABLE PATRONS TO WALK DIRECTLY TOWARD THE DESTINATION WITHOUT THREADING THROUGH PARKED CARS PERIMETER VEHICULAR CIRCULATION REDUCES POCKETED ZONES AND INCREASES EFFICENCY PERIMETER EXPRESS RAMP INCREASES VERTICAL VEHICULAR CIRCULATION SPEED AND BIANARY DECISION POINTS REDUCING DECISION TIME AND CONGESTION NEGATIVES: SHORT TERM & LONG TERM VEHICULAR CIRCULATION LOOPS ARE LESS DEFINED
ARE Pre-Design Seminar PROGRAMMING FRAMEWORK An effective framework for organizing programmatic information is the division of information into FUNCTION, FORM, ECONOMY and TIME.
ARE Pre-Design Seminar PROGRAMMING FRAMEWORK Putting together a complex array of sometime contradictory parts to form a united interdependent composition – SYNTHESIS
ARE Pre-Design Seminar NEEDS HUMAN PROPORTIONS
ARE Pre-Design Seminar BUILDING TYPE STUDIES BASIC FUNCTIONS AND PROCESS NORMAL SPACES AND AREAS RULES OF THUMB HISTORIC / TRADITIONAL SOLUTIONS TRADITIONAL FORMS
PROCESS FLOW ARE Pre-Design Seminar BUILDING TYPE STUDIES ROOM SIZE ORGANIZATION
ARE Pre-Design Seminar BUILDING TYPE STUDIES EQUIPMENT NEEDS DEPARTMENTAL DIAGRAMS COMPOSITE DIAGRAMS
ARE Pre-Design Seminar BUILDING TYPE STUDIES COURTHOUSE DESIGN Judge/Jury/Public circulation patterns are critical to a court house design. SHOPPING MALL DESIGN Store mix, convenient access, identity and adequate parking are critical to a suburban shopping mall. THEATER DESIGN Site lines and acoustics are critical to the success of a theater design.
ARE Pre-Design Seminar FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS Determine the order of importance, or hierarchy of functions and spaces and their relationships to each other. After preliminary studies, owner feedback is needed to discover his unique needs, concerns and issues. Bubble diagrams and matrixes’ are typical methods to express what we learn in this process.
ARE Pre-Design Seminar SPACE / AREA ALLOCATION Assembling spaces and area leads to NET AREA. Add circulation, structure, mechanical and shared space to obtain GROSS AREA NET AREA divided by GROSS AREA is the building EFFICENCY
ARE Pre-Design Seminar ROOM DATA SHEETS To establish space relationship requirements, internal room requirements, equipment required, activity zones, lighting and conditioning requirements. Tailor the ROOM DATA sheet to the building type and the client, to get the information needed and get the client’s buy-in early I usually fill in the blanks for user’s review, comments and approval.
ARE Pre-Design Seminar ROOM DATA SHEETS
ARE Pre-Design Seminar SPACE PRIORITY MATRIX Tells the designer that the Owner Is most concerned about Comfort, Character and Flexibility in the Living Rooms and is willing to Pay more in initial costs And utility costs to get it. In the kitchen Comfort And Character are still Priorities, but, Flexibility is not, and that he is less willing to pay more for the Character and Comfort Because of budgetary concerns.
ARE Pre-Design Seminar CODE ANALYSIS BUILDING CODES LIFE SAFETY CODES PLUMBING CODES HANDICAPPED ACCESSIBLITY ZONING ORDINANCES
ARE Pre-Design Seminar CODE ANALYSIS STANDARD BUILDING CODE UNIFORM BUILDING CODE BOCA CODE INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE Building codes deal with the spatial, structural and mechanical aspects of a building as they affect public health, safety and welfare. They can be PRESCRIPTIVE or PERFORMANCE in nature. TEXAS ACCESSIBLITY STANDARDS LIFE SAFETY CODE - ANSI A117.1
ARE Pre-Design Seminar CODE ANALYSIS: OCCUPANCY Assembly, Business, Education, Factory, Hazardous Uses, Institutional, Mercantile, Residential, Storage, Utility BUILDING PROPERTIES AREA, HEIGHT, STORIES CONSTRUCTION TYPE TYPE 1 and 2 – Non-Combustible Construction TYPE 3 – Exterior Walls are non-combustible TYPE 4 – Heavy Timber Construction TYPE 5 – Combustible Construction OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS Occupant Capacities Finishes Sub-Classifications Special Protections CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS Fire protection Requirements Egress Requirements MISCELANEOUS REQUIREMENTS
ARE Pre-Design Seminar SAMPLE CODE ANALYSIS: PROJECT TITLE INFO CODE USED OCCUPANCY Open Air Parking Garage BUILDING PROPERTIES AREA, HEIGHT, STORIES CONSTRUCTION TYPE Type 1 – Non-Combustible REQUIREMENTS OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS MISCELANEOUS REQUIREMENTS Wall Openings Height and Area Railings Barriers Fire Sprinklers REFERENCE LOCATIONS
ARE Pre-Design Seminar SECOND PAGE SAMPLE CODE ANALYSIS: PROJECT TITLE INFO REQUIREMENTS OCCUPANCY LOADS EGRESS REQUIREMENTS DOOR REQUIREMENTS REFERENCE LOCATIONS
ARE Pre-Design Seminar THIRD PAGE SAMPLE CODE ANALYSIS: PROJECT TITLE INFO REQUIREMENTS STAIR REQUIREMENTS EXIT ACCESS EXITS ACCESSABILITY PEDESTRIAN BRIDGEREQUIREMENTS REFERENCE LOCATIONS
ARE Pre-Design Seminar HANDICAP ACCESIBLITY CODES
ARE Pre-Design Seminar ZONING ORDINANCES: DEVELOPED OUT OF LAND PLANNING and URBAN DESIGN CONCEPTS RECTILINEAR CIRCULAR RADIOCENTRIC FOCUS - Town Square and The Plaza CONNECTORS – Boulevards, Vista Avenues, Parkways The GARDEN CITY CONCEPTS
ARE Pre-Design Seminar ZONING ORDINANCES: SEGREGATION OF USES CONTROL OF POPULATION DENSITY PARKING AND LOADING REQUIREMENTS HEIGHT, SIZE AND SETBACKS SITE LAYOUT AND COVERAGES SIGNAGE AND LANDSCAPING WATER RETENTION AND DETENTION EASMENTS DEED RESTRICTIONS COVENANTS To preserve and protect the health, safety and general welfare of the public; To enhance the quality of life; and To protect property values. They regulate land usage and the function, size and certain exterior aspects of a project
ARE Pre-Design Seminar PROJECT COSTS PROJECT INFORMATION SITE COSTS CONSTRUCTION COSTS PROFESSIONAL SERVICES MISCELANEOUS EXPENSES INSPECTIONS and TESTING CONTINGENCIES FINANCING