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SPIELVOGEL CHAPTER 16. TOWARD A NEW HEAVAN AND A NEW EARTH: THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION AND THE EMERGENCE OF MODERN SCIENCE. BACKGROUND TO THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION. Aristotle and Galen – key ancient thinkers who examined the physical world Natural philosophers = medieval scientists

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spielvogel chapter 16

SPIELVOGEL CHAPTER 16

TOWARD A NEW HEAVAN AND A NEW EARTH: THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION AND THE EMERGENCE OF MODERN SCIENCE

background to the scientific revolution
BACKGROUND TO THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • Aristotle and Galen – key ancient thinkers who examined the physical world
  • Natural philosophers = medieval scientists
  • Medieval scientists based their work –

1. strict theological framework

2. a few ancient authorities

the renaissance s impact on the sci rev
THE RENAISSANCE’S IMPACT ON THE SCI. REV.
  • Renaissance Humanists – mastered Greek and Latin language -> Galen, Ptolemy, Archimedes, Plato, and pre-socratics
  • Humanists discovered new ancient texts by Galen and Aristotle
  • Renaissance artists impacted Sci. Rev. –

1. observation of nature

2. use of perspective and math in painting

3. proper understanding of human anatomy

more background factors to sci rev
MORE BACKGROUND FACTORS TO SCI. REV.
  • Technical problems
  • Emphasis on practical over theoretical knowledge
  • Printing press -> spread ideas quickly and easily
  • Mathematics – military sci., navigation, geography
  • Leonardo da Vinci – nature is inherently mathematical and it provided certainty
magic
MAGIC
  • Hermetic magic = the world is divine, we are part of the divine -> we can tap in and control the world
  • Alchemy = changing substances -> stuff into gold
  • Astrology = position of stars -> influences our lives
  • Numerology = numbers have secrets
  • Use magic to control and dominate nature
  • All giants of the sci. rev. studied magic
the greatest achievements of the sci rev
THE GREATEST ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE SCI. REV.
  • ASTRONOMY
  • MECHANICS/

PHYSICS

  • MEDICINE
the medieval view of the cosmos
THE MEDIEVAL VIEW OF THE COSMOS
  • A synthesis of

1. Aristotle

2. Ptolemy

3. Christian theology

ptolemaic geocentric conception of the cosmos
PTOLEMAIC/GEOCENTRIC CONCEPTION OF THE COSMOS
  • Earth centered
  • Series of 10 concentric spheres
  • Crystalline/transparent sphere
  • Perfect circular rotation
  • Heavenly bodies were orbs of embedded in moving spheres
  • Beyond the 10th sphere = the kingdom of god/heaven
  • Man is at the center + god is in his place
copernicus
COPERNICUS
  • Polish astronomer
  • Author of - On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres
  • Published his book in 1453 -> waited until he was on his deathbed to publish -> fear of consequences
  • Copernican conception = heliocentric/sun centered
  • Copernican cosmos -> created uncertainty about man’s role in the universe and God’s location
  • Protestants were first to attack the new idea
  • Catholic church remained silent until Galileo in 1610