chapter 16 l.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 16 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 16

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 25

Chapter 16 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Chapter 16. Applications of Cognitivism II: Learning through Interactions with Others. Class Discussions Reciprocal Teaching Cooperative Learning Peer Tutoring. Apprenticeships Authentic Activities Community of Learners Advantages of Interactive Approaches. Chapter Overview.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

Chapter 16

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
chapter 16

Chapter 16

Applications of Cognitivism II: Learning through Interactions with Others

chapter overview
Class Discussions

Reciprocal Teaching

Cooperative Learning

Peer Tutoring


Authentic Activities

Community of Learners

Advantages of Interactive Approaches

Chapter Overview
class discussions
Class Discussions
  • Vygotsky and other social constructivists believe that people construct their representations (meaning) of the world through social negotiation
    • Social interaction is viewed as a mechanism for helping students learn
    • Classroom discussions are one form of social interaction
class discussions4
Class Discussions
  • According to the research, how do discussions help students learn?
    • Students must organize their thoughts
    • Students are questioned and challenged by a classmate, which can tell the student he or she does not fully understand the information
    • Encourages perspective taking
    • A group can co-construct an understanding of a topic
    • Discussions work well for almost any academic discipline
class discussions5
Class Discussions
  • Promoting effective discussions
    • Topics should lend themselves to multiple perspectives
    • Students must have prior knowledge – no “cold” discussions
    • Open debate and constructive criticism is encouraged
    • Get as many students involved as possible (small groups)
    • Structure the discussions
    • Give guidance about appropriate behavior
    • Provide a closure activity – examples?
reciprocal teaching
Reciprocal Teaching
  • Palincsar and Brown (1984, 1989) and others have argued that discussion can be effective because it promotes effecting learning strategies during reading and listening
  • Reciprocal teaching encourages students to use effective learning strategies
  • Read on…
reciprocal teaching7
Reciprocal Teaching
  • Palincsar and Brown (1984) noted that good readers, unlike poor readers, do the following during reading
    • Summarize
    • Question
    • Clarify
    • Predict

Students may acquire these strategies if they practice them in cooperation with other classmates – using reciprocal teaching

reciprocal teaching8
Reciprocal Teaching
  • Process
    • Students and teachers read a passage
    • Teacher leads discussion of text as they proceed – asking questions about summarizing, questioning, clarifying, and predicting
    • The role of the “teacher” is turned over to the students gradually
    • Eventually students read and discuss a text without the teacher
reciprocal teaching9
Reciprocal Teaching
  • Reciprocal teaching allows the teacher and students to model effective reading and learning strategies
reciprocal teaching10
Reciprocal Teaching
  • Effectiveness of reciprocal teaching
    • Palincsar and Brown (1984)
      • 7th grade students participated in 20 reciprocal teaching sessions, each lasting 30 minutes
      • Results
        • Independent summarizing and questioning increased
        • Better reading comprehension (30% before to 70% to 80% after)
        • Long-term reading comprehension gains
        • Students generalized their reading strategies to other classes
cooperative learning
Cooperative Learning
  • Building on the idea of reciprocal teaching, we now turn to group work
    • Cooperative learning involves students working in small groups to achieve a common goal
      • Groups may be formed on a short-term basis or a long-term basis
      • This approach is supported by behaviorism, social learning theory, and cognitive theories of development
cooperative learning12
Cooperative Learning
  • Features of Cooperative Learning
    • Small teacher-assigned groups
    • Groups have one or more common goal
    • Clear guidelines for behavior are provided
    • Group interdependency
    • Structure is provided – Dansereau’s (1988) scripted cooperation
    • Teacher acts as resource and monitor
    • Individual accountability for achievement
    • Rewards for group success
    • Group evaluates its effectiveness
    • Examples?
cooperative learning13
Cooperative Learning
  • How should groups be formed?
    • Mixed results from research regarding whether you should form heterogeneous groups (high and low achievers)
    • Textbook suggests
      • Assign roles to group members
      • Provide scripts for interactions
      • Assign projects that require a wide range of talents so that every member has something to contribute to the success of the group
cooperative learning14
Cooperative Learning
  • Effectiveness of cooperative learning
    • Students of all abilities show higher achievement; particularly true of females, members of minority groups, and at risk students
    • Promote higher level thinking skills
    • Increases student self-efficacy
    • Students understand the perspectives of others
    • Relationships form between students – across racial and ethnic groups and regardless of disability
cooperative learning15
Cooperative Learning
  • Problems with cooperative learning
    • Too much focus on group reward with the least possible individual effort
    • Students who do most of the work will learn more than others
    • Group may agree to use an incorrect/inappropriate strategy
    • Group may reinforce a misconception
    • Students are unable to help each other learn
peer tutoring
Peer Tutoring
  • Peer tutoring can be effective and lead to greater academic gains than traditional instruction (Durkin, 1995; Greenwood, Carta, & Hall, 1988)
    • Benefits the tutor and the student
      • Intrinsic motivation to learn when you are teaching someone else
      • Cooperation and social skills improve
      • Classroom problems decrease
      • Friendships develop
peer tutoring17
Peer Tutoring
  • Facilitating effective tutoring
    • Tutors should master the material and be aware of instructional techniques
    • Tutoring session is limited to subjects students know well
    • Structure interactions: Fuchs et al. (1997) – 2nd – 6th graders were paired with a classmate for Peer-Assisted earning Strategies; engaged in partner reading with retellings, paragraph summaries, and predictions; the results showed significant gains in reading
    • Don’t exploit ability differences between students
    • Use peer tutoring for students with special academic needs
    • Tutoring is not limited to same-age pairs
  • Think back to the historical meaning of an apprenticeship – a novice works closely with an expert to learn about a domain
    • Cognitive apprenticeship – you learn not only how to complete a task, but how to think about a task (graduate study)
  • Apprenticeships are labor-intensive and are characterized by:
    • Modeling – expert models behavior or thinking
    • Coaching – expert provides feedback and suggestions
    • Scaffolding – support
    • Increasing complexity and diversity of tasks – learner progresses to more complex issues
    • Articulation – learner explains steps and why they are taken
    • Reflection – learner compares performance with others
    • Exploration – learner generates questions and problems on his/her own and expands skills
authentic activities
Authentic Activities
  • Authentic activities are part of apprenticeships are gaining increasing favor as part of any educational approach
    • These are tasks that are identical or similar to those that students will encounter in the outside world
    • Authentic activities foster achievement, the generation of meaningful connections among ideas, and facilitate transfer to real-world contexts
    • See page 401 for examples of authentic activities
    • Other examples?
authentic activities21
Authentic Activities
  • Notes about authentic activities
    • Effective activities
      • Require background knowledge
      • Promote higher-level thinking
      • Require students to research ideas
      • Have high expectations for student work
      • Final outcome is complex (no single right answer)
    • Cautions
      • Students must master basic skills first
      • Don’t fill entire learning period with authentic activities
      • Focus on learning activities, regardless of whether they are authentic activities, that promote meaningful learning, organization, and elaboration
community of learners
Community of Learners
  • The topics discussed so far will help create a community of learners
    • Advantages (Brown & Campione, 1994)
      • Students actively and cooperatively work for mutual learning; students contribute to learning
      • Students are resources for others
      • Diversity in students’ interests and rates of progress are expected and respected
      • The learning process is emphasized as much as the learning product
community of learners23
Community of Learners
  • Disadvantages (Brown & Campione, 1994)
    • What students learn is limited by the knowledge they acquire and share with others
    • Students may share and reinforce misconceptions
advantages of interactive approaches
Advantages of Interactive Approaches
  • This chapter presented several interactive instructional approaches that foster learning
  • Think back to how the various theoretical perspectives that have been covered relate to the ideas presented in this chapter
advantages of interactive approaches25
Advantages of Interactive Approaches
  • As a wrap-up, the advantages of these approaches are:
    • Students co-construct their understanding of the world; may promote more complete understanding (constructivist view)
    • Students elaborate, organize, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information as they learn (cognitivist view; Bloom)
    • More proficient learners model effective strategies for less proficient learners (social learning theory)
    • Students integrate ideas about a topic (cognitivist view)
    • Students are motivated to learn (more about this in Chapter 17)