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Chapter 16. Applications of Cognitivism II: Learning through Interactions with Others. Class Discussions Reciprocal Teaching Cooperative Learning Peer Tutoring. Apprenticeships Authentic Activities Community of Learners Advantages of Interactive Approaches. Chapter Overview.

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chapter 16

Chapter 16

Applications of Cognitivism II: Learning through Interactions with Others

chapter overview
Class Discussions

Reciprocal Teaching

Cooperative Learning

Peer Tutoring

Apprenticeships

Authentic Activities

Community of Learners

Advantages of Interactive Approaches

Chapter Overview
class discussions
Class Discussions
  • Vygotsky and other social constructivists believe that people construct their representations (meaning) of the world through social negotiation
    • Social interaction is viewed as a mechanism for helping students learn
    • Classroom discussions are one form of social interaction
class discussions4
Class Discussions
  • According to the research, how do discussions help students learn?
    • Students must organize their thoughts
    • Students are questioned and challenged by a classmate, which can tell the student he or she does not fully understand the information
    • Encourages perspective taking
    • A group can co-construct an understanding of a topic
    • Discussions work well for almost any academic discipline
class discussions5
Class Discussions
  • Promoting effective discussions
    • Topics should lend themselves to multiple perspectives
    • Students must have prior knowledge – no “cold” discussions
    • Open debate and constructive criticism is encouraged
    • Get as many students involved as possible (small groups)
    • Structure the discussions
    • Give guidance about appropriate behavior
    • Provide a closure activity – examples?
reciprocal teaching
Reciprocal Teaching
  • Palincsar and Brown (1984, 1989) and others have argued that discussion can be effective because it promotes effecting learning strategies during reading and listening
  • Reciprocal teaching encourages students to use effective learning strategies
  • Read on…
reciprocal teaching7
Reciprocal Teaching
  • Palincsar and Brown (1984) noted that good readers, unlike poor readers, do the following during reading
    • Summarize
    • Question
    • Clarify
    • Predict

Students may acquire these strategies if they practice them in cooperation with other classmates – using reciprocal teaching

reciprocal teaching8
Reciprocal Teaching
  • Process
    • Students and teachers read a passage
    • Teacher leads discussion of text as they proceed – asking questions about summarizing, questioning, clarifying, and predicting
    • The role of the “teacher” is turned over to the students gradually
    • Eventually students read and discuss a text without the teacher
reciprocal teaching9
Reciprocal Teaching
  • Reciprocal teaching allows the teacher and students to model effective reading and learning strategies
reciprocal teaching10
Reciprocal Teaching
  • Effectiveness of reciprocal teaching
    • Palincsar and Brown (1984)
      • 7th grade students participated in 20 reciprocal teaching sessions, each lasting 30 minutes
      • Results
        • Independent summarizing and questioning increased
        • Better reading comprehension (30% before to 70% to 80% after)
        • Long-term reading comprehension gains
        • Students generalized their reading strategies to other classes
cooperative learning
Cooperative Learning
  • Building on the idea of reciprocal teaching, we now turn to group work
    • Cooperative learning involves students working in small groups to achieve a common goal
      • Groups may be formed on a short-term basis or a long-term basis
      • This approach is supported by behaviorism, social learning theory, and cognitive theories of development
cooperative learning12
Cooperative Learning
  • Features of Cooperative Learning
    • Small teacher-assigned groups
    • Groups have one or more common goal
    • Clear guidelines for behavior are provided
    • Group interdependency
    • Structure is provided – Dansereau’s (1988) scripted cooperation
    • Teacher acts as resource and monitor
    • Individual accountability for achievement
    • Rewards for group success
    • Group evaluates its effectiveness
    • Examples?
cooperative learning13
Cooperative Learning
  • How should groups be formed?
    • Mixed results from research regarding whether you should form heterogeneous groups (high and low achievers)
    • Textbook suggests
      • Assign roles to group members
      • Provide scripts for interactions
      • Assign projects that require a wide range of talents so that every member has something to contribute to the success of the group
cooperative learning14
Cooperative Learning
  • Effectiveness of cooperative learning
    • Students of all abilities show higher achievement; particularly true of females, members of minority groups, and at risk students
    • Promote higher level thinking skills
    • Increases student self-efficacy
    • Students understand the perspectives of others
    • Relationships form between students – across racial and ethnic groups and regardless of disability
cooperative learning15
Cooperative Learning
  • Problems with cooperative learning
    • Too much focus on group reward with the least possible individual effort
    • Students who do most of the work will learn more than others
    • Group may agree to use an incorrect/inappropriate strategy
    • Group may reinforce a misconception
    • Students are unable to help each other learn
peer tutoring
Peer Tutoring
  • Peer tutoring can be effective and lead to greater academic gains than traditional instruction (Durkin, 1995; Greenwood, Carta, & Hall, 1988)
    • Benefits the tutor and the student
      • Intrinsic motivation to learn when you are teaching someone else
      • Cooperation and social skills improve
      • Classroom problems decrease
      • Friendships develop
peer tutoring17
Peer Tutoring
  • Facilitating effective tutoring
    • Tutors should master the material and be aware of instructional techniques
    • Tutoring session is limited to subjects students know well
    • Structure interactions: Fuchs et al. (1997) – 2nd – 6th graders were paired with a classmate for Peer-Assisted earning Strategies; engaged in partner reading with retellings, paragraph summaries, and predictions; the results showed significant gains in reading
    • Don’t exploit ability differences between students
    • Use peer tutoring for students with special academic needs
    • Tutoring is not limited to same-age pairs
apprenticeships
Apprenticeships
  • Think back to the historical meaning of an apprenticeship – a novice works closely with an expert to learn about a domain
    • Cognitive apprenticeship – you learn not only how to complete a task, but how to think about a task (graduate study)
apprenticeships19
Apprenticeships
  • Apprenticeships are labor-intensive and are characterized by:
    • Modeling – expert models behavior or thinking
    • Coaching – expert provides feedback and suggestions
    • Scaffolding – support
    • Increasing complexity and diversity of tasks – learner progresses to more complex issues
    • Articulation – learner explains steps and why they are taken
    • Reflection – learner compares performance with others
    • Exploration – learner generates questions and problems on his/her own and expands skills
authentic activities
Authentic Activities
  • Authentic activities are part of apprenticeships are gaining increasing favor as part of any educational approach
    • These are tasks that are identical or similar to those that students will encounter in the outside world
    • Authentic activities foster achievement, the generation of meaningful connections among ideas, and facilitate transfer to real-world contexts
    • See page 401 for examples of authentic activities
    • Other examples?
authentic activities21
Authentic Activities
  • Notes about authentic activities
    • Effective activities
      • Require background knowledge
      • Promote higher-level thinking
      • Require students to research ideas
      • Have high expectations for student work
      • Final outcome is complex (no single right answer)
    • Cautions
      • Students must master basic skills first
      • Don’t fill entire learning period with authentic activities
      • Focus on learning activities, regardless of whether they are authentic activities, that promote meaningful learning, organization, and elaboration
community of learners
Community of Learners
  • The topics discussed so far will help create a community of learners
    • Advantages (Brown & Campione, 1994)
      • Students actively and cooperatively work for mutual learning; students contribute to learning
      • Students are resources for others
      • Diversity in students’ interests and rates of progress are expected and respected
      • The learning process is emphasized as much as the learning product
community of learners23
Community of Learners
  • Disadvantages (Brown & Campione, 1994)
    • What students learn is limited by the knowledge they acquire and share with others
    • Students may share and reinforce misconceptions
advantages of interactive approaches
Advantages of Interactive Approaches
  • This chapter presented several interactive instructional approaches that foster learning
  • Think back to how the various theoretical perspectives that have been covered relate to the ideas presented in this chapter
advantages of interactive approaches25
Advantages of Interactive Approaches
  • As a wrap-up, the advantages of these approaches are:
    • Students co-construct their understanding of the world; may promote more complete understanding (constructivist view)
    • Students elaborate, organize, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information as they learn (cognitivist view; Bloom)
    • More proficient learners model effective strategies for less proficient learners (social learning theory)
    • Students integrate ideas about a topic (cognitivist view)
    • Students are motivated to learn (more about this in Chapter 17)