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SPIELVOGEL CHAPTER 13

SPIELVOGEL CHAPTER 13

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SPIELVOGEL CHAPTER 13

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  1. SPIELVOGEL CHAPTER 13 REFORMATION AND RELIGIOUS WARFARE IN THE 16TH CENTURY

  2. PRELUDE TO REFORMATION • The second half of the 15th century – • Italian Renaissance humanism spreads to N. Europe • Northern Humanism = Christian Humanism • Goal of N. Humanism = reform Christianity

  3. CHRISTIAN OR NORTHERN RENAISSANCE HUMANISM • Both Italian and N. Humanists focused on the study of the classics – • Ancient Greek and Latin texts • Return to the writings of antiquity

  4. NORTHERN HUMANISTS • Study the sources and writings of early Christianity • Study the writings of church fathers • Early Christianity was a simple religion • Human beings can reason and improve themselves • Education and study of early church writings could reform the church and society • Support for schools • Work on new editions and translations of the classics, the bible, and writings of church founders • Education = improved people = improved society

  5. ERASMUS • most influential of the N. Humanists • Born in Holland – called Erasmus of Rotterdam • Reform program of Christian Humanism • “the philosophy of Christ” = Christianity should guide our daily life, not only be a system of beliefs and practices • Emphasized – inner piety • De-emphasized – external forms of religion • Prepared new and accurate text of the bible • The Praise of Folly – 1. written in 1511 2. humorously criticized corruption of society 3. criticized abuses in the church

  6. Desiderius Erasmus

  7. “ERASMUS LAID THE EGG THAT LUTHER HATCHED”

  8. THOMAS MORE • trained in the law • Interested in the new classical learning –> studied Greek and Latin • Put his learning into service to the state -> govt official/lord chancellor • religiously devoted/believed in the universal Catholic Church • Refused to go along with Henry VIII’s break with the Catholic Church • Executed for treason for not cooperating with the king’s break with Catholicism

  9. THOMAS MORE I die the king's faithful servant, but God's first.Thomas More

  10. UTOPIA • Written in 1516 • The word utopia = nowhere • An imaginary perfect society on an island near the new world • Cooperation and reason replace power and fame as motivators • All people work the same amount and receive the same • Wholesome, enriching, and orderly world will create good people

  11. CHURCH AND RELIGION ON THE EVE OF THE REFORMATION • Why did people want to reform the Catholic Church – • failure of the renaissance papacy to provide spiritual leadership • popes too concerned with wealth and art • Popes too concerned with worldly power and politics • Popes too concerned with sensuality and debauchery • Popes and church too concerned with money and finances • Simony • Pluralism • Absenteeism • Clerical immorality • Clerical ignorance

  12. FAILURE OF THE CHURCH TO MEET SPIRITUAL NEEDS LEADS TO - • Mechanical/external approach to salvation veneration of relics buying indulgences • The Modern Devotion movement popular mystical movement following the teaching of Jesus