Reforms of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Russian Higher Education Marina M. Lebedeva MGIMO-University 2014
Reform of Higher Education • Reforms started in the field of higher education in • 1990s • Development universities in Russian regions • New textbooks in the field of social science • New fields of education (PR, political science, IR) • 2000s • First stage: Russia jointed Bologna Process (2003) ( a lot of discussions) • Pluses: • Internationalization of Russian higher education • 3 levels system of degrees were implemented • Double degree diplomas • Mobility (but mainly from Russia to Europe) • Minuses: • Just European part of Russia is in the Area • Clasterization of the universities - Successful universities (are in the Area), unsuccessful universities (are out of the Area) • Second stage: (Second half of 2000)
Reform of Higher Education:Second Stage • Clasterization of universities • Federal universities, national research universities • To attract of foreign students • Documents • The Concept of Export of Educational Services of the Russian Federation for the period 2011 - 2020 • A special attention to students from CIS • 2004/2005: CIS – 36.6%; Asia, Africa, the Middle East, Latin America – 52% • Concept of State Policy of the Russian Federation in the field of education for foreign countries (2002): ‘Russia as a major educational center in the CIS’ • In 2011/2012 academic year Russian government granted 40.9% of scholarships for students from CIS (different numbers: MEdu: 43 860 students from CIS; M Intern. Aff: 3 122) • Network university of CIS and SCO • Scientific work of students and teachers • Research universities • Grants for projects which involves students (Ministry of Education and Science)
The Results of Reforms in Russia Slow departure from Bologna Process (problem of Bologna process) • Creation Russian center for education of CIS students • Support of ‘strong universities’ with good scientific schools
If Russia Needs Reforms of Science? • Two approaches: • of Russian science has a good quality. We need just improvements. We need to keep Russian traditions • We need radical reforms • What has to be reformed? Two key issues: • Financing system • Management system
Financing: How it Worked in the Past? 1. Financing • Budget financing. Lack of finance • RAS was owner of property with good location. Most part of property was for rent out • Results: minimum wage but for everybody 2. Projects and Grants (some scholars). New Reality which started from 1990s • Foreign Foundations • Russian Foundations
Promises of Increasing of Financing • V.Putin in 2013: • Until 2020: 834 billions rubles for fundamental studies • 2014-2016: 48 billions rubles will be transfer to Russian Science Foundation
Management in the Past • In the past: separation science and education • Institutes of RAS decided by themselves regarding scientific projects, scientific approaches etc.
What Has Been Done • Russian Foundations were established • Russian Science Foundation (2014) • University on the basis of RAS was created • Now many scholars of RAS teach at Russian universities • Scientometric indicators were created (e-library - http://elibrary.ru/defaultx.asp) • Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations was founded (http://fano.gov.ru/ru/) – The Head – Mr Kotyukov (the most controversial aspect of reform).
Conclusion • The common tendencies in reforms in the higher education and in science: • From social-democratic model to neoliberal model: • To support the strongest (departure from social orientation) • Clasterization • Attention to Russian centers and Russia as CIS center • Centralization of management and finance
Vectors and Possibilitiesin the Field of Higher Education • Different states – different vectors • Baltic states • Kazakhstan • Member of Bologna process • Nazarbayev university • Possible role of Baltic states • Case of Latvia • Member of Bologna process • Member of EU • Knowledge of Russian language, Russian system of education
Why theBologna Process and EHEAwere needed • In 1990s Europe was behind other regions in using technical innovations (USA, Japan, SA) • European unified economy needed a harmonized higher education area • Europe lost its first position in education (the number of European students studying in the USA exceeded the number of American students studying in Europe) • Higher education is a part of cultural tradition in Europe