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“SCIENTIFIC BASE ELABORATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF RESOURCE SAVING TECHNOLOGY FOR RISE IN PROFITABILITY OF MEAT AND DAIRY FARMING AND BROILER POULTRY”. Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences

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“SCIENTIFIC BASE ELABORATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF RESOURCE SAVING TECHNOLOGY FOR RISE IN PROFITABILITY OF MEAT AND DAIRY FARMING AND BROILER POULTRY”

Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences

“Research Institute for Biology and Physiology of Microorganisms named after G.K. Skriabin” of the Russian Academy of Sciences

“Research Institute for Epidemiology and Microbiology Named After Honorary Member of academy N.F. Gamalei” of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences

FSI“All-Russian State Center for Quality Control and standardization of Animal Medications and Feeds” of Federal Veterinary And Phytosanitary Monitoring Service

Limited Liability Company “Research and Production Company “Sovremennyje Biotekhnologii”

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1. RESOURCE SAVING TECHNOLOGY FOR RISE IN PROFITABILITY OF MEAT AND DAIRY FARMING AND BROILER POULTRY”Urgency of agricultural animals and poultry productivity improvement. 2. Product specification.3. Application of SАТ-SОМ product in animal farming. 4. Animals’ physiological state upon application of Sat-Som product. 5. Meat bioavailability indicators upon application of Sat-Som product.

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The issues of productivity improvement of animal and poultry farming have gained strategic significance within the recent years with regard to the urge to provide economic independence of national farming. The use of traditional methods based on application of antibiotics and hormonal muscle pills in animal feeding cause growing rejection in consumers and objections of medical and sanitation departments. Therefore, the search for alternative solutions to improve productivity of cattle and other farm animals’ feeding is an urgent and actual task.

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In the middle of the 90s of the XX century Russian researchers suggested an original solution of animal feeding productivity improvement based on a possibility of endogenous regulation of biologically active peptides level and the digestive tract enzymes activity. The attention of the Russian scientists was drawn by somatostatin – a biologically active tetradecapeptide that is produced in hypothalamus and digestive tract of animals. Somatostatin, having strong inhibiting effect on a range of hormones (somatotropin, thyrotropin, insulin, glucagon), initiates oppression of release of digestive enzymes, pancreas and small intestine, reduces digestive tract activity and evacuation of its content. Wide range of effects that somatostatin has on the factors responsible for food disposal became the grounds for exploration of possibility of its use for the purposes of animal feeding process optimization in order to mitigate economic costs.

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In the USA, Canada and Great Britain, active immunization of animals (cattle, sheep, pigs) against somatostatin was performed over thirty years ago. The authors of research notice, that the immunized animals overtopped the control ones with regard to weight gain in the same conditions by 20-30%, with high concentration of somatotropin found in their blood. In the course of research, reduction of feeding terms and, subsequently, mitigation of operating costs was discovered. However wide application of active animal immunization method against endogenous somatostatin was impossible due to its expensiveness, because the basic means of peptide generation is chemical synthesis, which prevented us economically from practical realization of this approach.

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In animals (cattle, sheep, pigs) against somatostatin was performed over thirty years ago. The authors of research notice, that the immunized animals overtopped the control ones with regard to weight gain in the same conditions by 20-30%, with high concentration of somatotropin found in their blood. In the course of research, reduction of feeding terms and, subsequently, mitigation of operating costs was discovered. 1993-1995. our native researchers created genetically engineered race of colon bacillus capable of synthesizing immunologically active somatostatin-containing protein, which can be easily extracted and cleaned and has sufficient level of immune capacity regarding somatostatine, for practical use for farm animals’ productivity improvement. Subsequently, somatostatin-containing protein biosynthesis and cleaning technologies were elaborated, and the product was created and tested. Similar works were performed abroad, however, immune capacity of the received products was insufficient.

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Product specification animals (cattle, sheep, pigs) against somatostatin was performed over thirty years ago. The authors of research notice, that the immunized animals overtopped the control ones with regard to weight gain in the same conditions by 20-30%, with high concentration of somatotropin found in their blood. In the course of research, reduction of feeding terms and, subsequently, mitigation of operating costs was discovered.

pCATSom

Promoter CAT SD

CAT

Som Terminator

The product (polypeptide) for farm animals’ productivity improvement contains carrier protein, somatostatin and adjuvant. Polypeptide is formed in the colon bacillus cells transformed by plasmid DNA containing the fragment of DNA encoding the part of chloramphenicol acetyl transferase without ten C-terminal amino acids with attached sequence encoding somatostatin-14 with an amino acidic stop codon, inducing synthesis of somatostatin-specific antibodies.

pCATdelSom

Promoter CAT SD

CATdel

Som Terminator

pCATdelSomT5

Promoter T5 SD

CATdel

Som Terminator

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The product’s mechanism is based on generation of antibodies against somatostatin in the animals’ bodies, reduction of its concentration in blood and tissues and, as a result, increase of endogenous somatotropine level and activity of some enzymes in the digestive tract which leads to beef and dairy productivity stimulation.

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Product application antibodies against somatostatin in the animals’ bodies, reduction of its concentration in blood and tissues and, as a result, increase of endogenous somatotropine level and activity of some enzymes in the digestive tract which leads to beef and dairy productivity stimulation.

In 1994. on the grounds of positive consideration of normative and technical documentation by Veterinary Department of Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation, permission for a large-scale industrial experiment in farming practice was obtained. The product was applied by way of five intradermal injections (according to the scheme). 4-8 weeks after the first injection, animals’ daily average live weight gain increased by approximately 10% compared to the similar exponents in the control group and remained at the same level during the entire feed cycle. Single protein doze that was injected amounts to 50mkg per 1kg of an animal’s live weight.

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In antibodies against somatostatin in the animals’ bodies, reduction of its concentration in blood and tissues and, as a result, increase of endogenous somatotropine level and activity of some enzymes in the digestive tract which leads to beef and dairy productivity stimulation. 2003 all the required documentation for SAT-SOM product underwent an examination at the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation and the product was permitted for use on the territory of the Russian Federation, and since 2005 – on the territory of the Republic of Belarus. In 2006 the product was registered on the territory of Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan.Within 2003-2005 pork producing agricultural enterprises in Belgorod, Kaluga, Novgorod and Tomsk regions, as well as the Republic of Belarus, received the following results due to implementation of SAT-SOM product in pig growing technologies:

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- antibodies against somatostatin in the animals’ bodies, reduction of its concentration in blood and tissues and, as a result, increase of endogenous somatotropine level and activity of some enzymes in the digestive tract which leads to beef and dairy productivity stimulation. Reduction of feeding period to 2 weeks with feed efficiency increase;

- Increase of sows’ milkability and full-value condition of milk;

- Increase of animals’ resistibility;

- Mitigation of economic costs on animal feeding.

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Now let us briefly comment on basic results of SAT-SOM use in animal and poultry farms.

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Sat-Som efficacy in young fat stock feeding of Novgorod oblast.

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Results of SAT-SOM application for feeder swine productivity increase (Belgorod oblast, “Gubkinskij Agricultural Holding”, Novgorod oblast, “Novgorod Bacon”).

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Several exponents of animals’ physiological state were explored during application of SAT-SOM at pig complexes “Cossak Holding Company” (Ilovlya, Volgograd oblast) and “Gubkinskij” (Belgorog oblast). The basic average results are set out below.

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Impact of SAT-SOM on pregnancy, farrowing, puerperal period and brood quality.

The experiment was carried out on 255 bred sows of Large White breed with 65 days pregnancy period of third-fifth farrowing with live weight of 185-230 kg. Experimental sows received intradermal injections of SAT-SOM twice on 65th and 80th of pregnancy, control group (129 heads) received the same doze of adjuvant. The exponents of the product’s impact on multifetation were terms of farrowing, quantity of young pigs born, among them alive, including “marketable”, “minus-variative” and stillborn. The data collected are set out in the table.

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It was established that SAT-SOM application did not have any material effect on pregnancy term, which equaled to 114±1.28 days in experimental group and 114±1.15 days in control group. Application of SAT-SOM led to increase of the number of sows farrowing within technological terms by 20.6% compared to control group. The number of pigs born alive in the experimental group overtopped the control group by 1.9% and by 8.4 % of “marketable” pigs. Moreover, the number of “minus variants” and the stillborn was lower in the experimental group than in control group by 5.5 % and 1.9 % accordingly. As per bred sow against SAT-SOM application the birth rates were higher for multifetation – by 0.3 heads, “marketable” pigs – by 0.79 heads and lower for “minus variants” – by 0.51 and the stillborn – by 0.17 heads.

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120 material effect on pregnancy term, which equaled to

100

80

60

108

84

40

60

50

20

29.7

20.4

25

9.3

10

15

10

5

0

Among them

Among

Sick with

MMA

percentage

Compared to

Sows in groups,

Sick sows

Compared to

sick in the

sick

Exponent

total

percentage

control, %

control, %

puerperal period

with MMA

syndrome

108

10

9.3

20.4

5

50

10

SАТ-SОМ

84

25

29.7

-

15

60

-

Control group

Therefore, the obtained results evidence, that the product does not impair gestation and labour course and helps improve brood quality. The prophylactic impact of the product with regard to sows’ puerperal morbidity rate is reflected in the table. SАТ-SОМ impact on sows’ puerperal morbidity rate.

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As we can see from the table, the percentage of sows sick in the puerperal period in the control group was almost 3.2 times higher. The percentage of sows sick with MMA syndrome was even higher (17.9% against 4.6; or by 3.9 times). The rate of sows sick with MMA out of total number of sick sows was higher by 10%. This suggests that somatostatin blocking had positive effect on the sows’ resistibility against this widespread puerperal disease. After application of the product the exponents of sows’ reproductive function restoration during puerperal period were also taken into account. It was established that the number of sows delivered to breeding site amounted to 95.4% against 94.0% in control group. The number of sows not blissoming within terms against SAT-SOM application was by 3.4.% lower that in control group. Farrowing of bred sows according to U/S data amounted to 93.0% against SAT-SOM application, which is by 1.1% higher than in control group.

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In the course of research, some exponents of protein exchange, glucose and lactic acid content and concentration of vitamins in animals’ blood plasma was analyzed. The results are set out in the tables.

Blood proteins support permanent osmotic pressure and blood pH and play an important role in formation of complexes with hormones, carbohydrates, lipids and other substances.

Also they play a significant part in the body’s protective mechanism, water metabolism, transportation of nutrients and metabolic products and hemostasis. Proteins are the key biologically active substances, and their level in blood to a certain extent determines the intensity of protein exchange in the body. Blood proteins, first of all, albumins, are the source of formation of proteins of various organs and tissues. Therefore, the intensity of protein exchange in the organism of experimental animals can be assessed on the basis of variation of crude protein and protein fractions content in blood serum.

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The research established that SAT-SOM has a positive effect on protein exchange of young pigs on completion of growing and stall-feed.

Animals of experimental group at the age of 4 months overtopped the control group with regard to crude protein content in blood serum by 8.2%, and by 7.97% at the age of 8 months.

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Age-dependent dynamics of crude protein content in blood serum of experimental animals, g/l (n = 12).

100

50

83.57

81.05

77.4

74.9

67.4

66.81

0

2

4

8

Age, months

Control group

66.81

74.9

77.4

Experimental

group

67.4

81.05

83.57

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Glucose and lactic acid content in blood of 8-month-old pigs. (n = 12).

10

5

8.48

7.58

4.31

4.43

0

Glucose, mM/l

Lactic acid, mg%

Exponent

Control group

4.31

8.48

Experimental

group

4.43

7.58

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The results of research indicate that glucose content in the blood of 8 month old pigs compared to that of control group was higher by 2.8% and while lactic acid concentration in the blood serum was lower by 10.61% accordingly. Therefore, carbohydrate metabolism of experimental pigs increased under the influence of SAT-SOM.

Vitamin E participates in protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism. It promotes assimilation of Vitamin A and carotene. E-hypovitaminosis results in amyotrophia, impaired synthesis and carotene phosphorylation, slowed down acetylization reactions and inadequate oxidizing processes, as well as mineral metabolism, especially calcium and phosphorus, and reduced glycogen and vitamin A content in the liver.

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Content of vitamin metabolism components in blood serum of 8-month-old pigs (n = 12).

40

30

20

30.47

29.59

10

0.39

0.81

0.31

0.69

0

Vitamin А, mkg%

Vitamin Е, mg%

Vitamin С, mg%

Exponent

Control group

29.59

0.31

0.69

Experimental

group

30.47

0.39

0.81

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Our research shows that differences in vitamin A content in the blood serum of experimental pigs were insignificant. At the same time vitamin E concentration in the blood serum of experimental animals overtopped the same exponent of control group by 25.81%. 8-month-old animals of experimental group overtopped pigs in control group with regard to vitamin C content by 17.39%.

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Slaughter and pork-making qualities of experimental pigs the blood serum of experimental pigs were insignificant. At the same time vitamin E concentration in the blood serum of experimental animals overtopped the same exponent of control group by 25.81%. 8-month-old animals of experimental group overtopped pigs in control group with regard to vitamin C content by 17.39%. (n=12).

150

100

30.82

30.95

30.46

107.61

29.3

101.81

50

69.92

67.11

63.75

64.97

64.9

62.43

61.31

62.36

2.81

2.47

0

Preslaughter

live weight, kg,

Slaughter

weight, kg

Slaughter

outcome, %

Fresh

carcass

weight, kg

Carcass

outcome %

Inner fat

Weight, kg

Fat thickness

at the level of 6-7

dorsal vertebras,

mm

“Muscle bud” square, cm2

Exponent

Control group

101.81

64.9

63.75

62.43

61.31

2.47

30.82

29.3

Experimental

group

107.61

69.92

64.97

67.11

62.36

2.81

30.95

30.46

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The control slaughter data indicate that preslaughter live weight of experimental pigs overtopped that of control group animals by 5.70%. The research also established that young pigs of experimental group overtopped control group in slaughter weight by 7.73%. The same regularity was observed with regard to fresh carcass weight. The advantage of experimental group over control group on this exponent amounted to 7.50%.

With regard to slaughter outcome, experimental pigs overtopped young pigs of control group by 1.22%.

Moreover, the advantage of experimental pigs regarding “muscle bud” square was established. The “muscle bud” square of these animals overtopped that of control group pigs by 3.96%.

Therefore, SAT-SOM injection has had a positive effect on growth and development of young pigs, which was vividly reflected in the results of control slaughter.

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Meat is the aggregate of tissues which constitute the carcass or half-carcass obtained after slaughter. It contains the following basic tissues: muscle, connective, bone and cartilaginous tissue. The chemical composition of meat, its nutritive value and processing properties directly depend on the proportion of constituent tissues. The proportion of tissues in meat is, in its turn, influenced by the type, breed, age, fatness, feeding type and a range of other factors.

Deboning of carcasses of pigs from control and experimental groups allowed establishing the absolute and relative amount of their bodies’ basic tissues. The results of deboning are reflected in the table.The research established that experimental pigs overtopped control group animals in chilled carcass weight by 7.28 %, and 9.19% in meat weight accordingly.

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Morphological composition of experimental pigs’ carcasses carcass or half-carcass obtained after slaughter. It contains the following basic tissues: muscle, connective, bone and cartilaginous tissue. The chemical composition of meat, its nutritive value and processing properties directly depend on the proportion of constituent tissues. The proportion of tissues in meat is, in its turn, influenced by the type, breed, age, fatness, feeding type and a range of other factors. (n=12)

80

60

40

20.48

65.7

19.7

61.24

57.85

56.84

11.69

11.42

7.16

20

38.01

7.5

34.81

32.17

31.17

0

Bones outcome,

Meat outcome, %

Meat weight, kg

Lard weight, kg

Lard outcome, %

Bones weight, kg

Chilled

Carcass

weight, kg

Exponent

%

Control group

61.24

34.81

56.84

19.7

32.17

7.16

11.69

Experimental

group

65.7

38.01

57.85

20.48

31.17

7.5

11.42

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Compared to young pigs of control group, the advantage of experimental pigs with regard to carcass meat outcome amounted to 1.01% accordingly.

Experimental animals’ carcasses had smaller lard outcome and came short of this exponent compared to control group animals by 1.01% accordingly.

Therefore, we can conclude that SAT-SOM injection to experimental pigs significantly improved pork production exponent compared to that of control group.

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Bioavailability of pork experimental pigs with regard to carcass meat outcome amounted to 1.01% accordingly..

Bioavailability of meat is to a certain degree determined by complete proteins content – the background of the entire range of amino acids and, in particular, their biological marker, tryptophane. The amount of imperfect albumins (partial proteins) is represented by oxyproline. The high index of protein quality exponent (PQE) which characterizes tryptophane versus oxyproline ratio, evidences the good nutritive value of pork. The higher the PQE, the better the biological full-value of pork.

The data regarding bioavailability of experimental animals’ meat are set out in the table.

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Bioavailability of experimental pigs’ meat experimental pigs with regard to carcass meat outcome amounted to 1.01% accordingly.(n = 12)

500

400

300

420.3

408.5

200

49.16

47.65

100

8.31

8.82

0

Protein quality exponent

Tryptophane, mg%

Oxyproline, mg%

Exponent

Control group

408.5

49.16

8.31

Experimental

group

420.3

47.65

8.82

Average sample

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Bioavailability of experimental pigs’ meat experimental pigs with regard to carcass meat outcome amounted to 1.01% accordingly.(n = 12)

500

400

300

438.1

425.7

200

48.15

46.51

8.84

9.42

100

0

Exponent

Tryptophane, mg%

Oxyproline, mg%

Protein quality exponent

Control group

425.7

48.15

8.84

Experimental

group

438.1

46.51

9.42

Rib eye

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Our research established that the average meat sample of experimental pigs that received SAT-SOM injections overtopped control group in tryptophane content by 2.9% and came short in oxyproline by 3.7%. Protein quality exponent of average carcass flesh sample of experimental group was higher than that of control group by 6.14%.

This indicates that the meat obtained from experimental animals had higher biological full-value than that of control group.

The research established that the rib eye of experimental pigs contained more tryptophane than that of the control group by 2.91% accordingly. The content of oxyproline was higher in the rib eye of control animals. They overtopped the experimental group with regard to this exponent by 3.41%. Protein quality exponent (PQE) of the rib eye of experimental group pigs exceeded that of control group by 6.56%.

Therefore, application of SAT-SOM product significantly influences the protein formation of muscle tissue.

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In accordance with the Resolution of Russian Federation Government

№ 221 dated on 10/03/2009, this scientific development is announced to be among the winners of the Russian Federation Government Award in the sphere of Science and Technics.

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