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Scientific Method Understanding Science
What is the Scientific Method? The process biologists & other scientists use to gather information to solve problems or questions. 1. Investigative Question2. Research3. Experimental Plan4. Data5. Figures and Graphs6. Discussion of Results (Analysis)7. Conclusion
Investigative Question Does washing your face before bed reduce acne? The question the scientist is trying to answer.
Research (paper) 1. Describe the subject of the report.2. Provide background information and report on what is known about the subject you are studying.3. Discuss why you are doing this study.4. Why it is important5. How the results could be relevant to other people.
Experimental Design Independent Variable: The variable in the experiment that is being tested. It is deliberately changed (manipulated)Dependent Variable: The changes in response to the independent variable. (responding) Hypothesis: is a proposed scientific explanation for a set of observations. Always, and if, then statement
Experimental Design Materials:List of items needed to conduct the experiment. Always include units (metric) Experimental Procedures: step-by-step procedure on how to carry out he experiment. Must be detailed and include all areas of the experiment.
Hypothesis 1. A proposed scientific explanation for a set of observations. 2. Uses prior knowledge and logical inferences. Ex. If someone washes their face before bed, then there will be a decrease in the number of pimples.
Hypothesis MUST BE TESTABLE!!!! One does this by conducting controlled experiments OR By collecting more information!!!
Experiment How the hypothesis is being tested. One variable changed at a time. All other variables should be kept unchanged (constant). ***Good Experiments have many trials/or large sample and/or are conducted over a long period of time. *****
Data Figures and Graphs How are you going to collect your data? Qualitative: Descriptions or drawings(pictures of zits) Quantitative: Measurement, counts, or lists of numbers.
Figures and Graphs Data is arranged in an organized chart and or put into a graph.
Discussion of Results (Analysis) This is when scientists evaluate the hypothesis and draw valid conclusions. Evidence is used to determine whether the hypothesis was supported or refuted.
Discussion of Results (Analysis) Includes new questions that have come up during the experiment. List of any human error that could have caused the results to be invalid.
Conclusion A single paragraph that sums up what happened in the experiment, whether your hypothesis was accepted or refuted (rejected).
Theory vs. Law • Scientific Law: A scientific law is a statement based on repeated experimental observations that describes some aspect of the universe. (under same conditions/relational) example: Law of gravity • Fact: Very specific detail about the natural world. Ex. Water boils at 100 C • Scientific Theory:well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world that can incorporate facts, laws, inferences, and tested hypotheses. Ex. Big Bang Theory