The Roman Legacy Analysis of the influence of Rome on the world
An adaptation is . . . something, such as a device or mechanism, that is changed or changes so as to become suitable to a new or special application or situation An advancement is . . . a forward step, or an improvement; a gradual step, or growth, or development Adaptation or Advancement
Art and Architecture • Statues • Dome • Columns • Mosaics • Concrete • Arch
http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Pantheon/9013/Trajan.html Trajan’s Column
Detail of Trajan’s Column • http://ic.ucsc.edu/~langdale/arth134/trajcol.htm
Adaptations Statues Columns Arch Advancements Mosaic Concrete Dome Art and Architecture
Science and Technology • Medical knowledge • Roads and bridges • Astronomical findings • Aqueducts
Roman Aqueducts Seine Aqueduct (France) Segovia Aqueduct (Spain)
Hadrian’s Wall 73 miles across the south coast of Britain in 55 BCE
Adaptations Medical Encyclopedia by Galen Ptolemy’s theory on earth as the center of the universe Advancements Roads – Appian Way – “ All roads lead to Rome Aqueducts Science and Technology
Literature • Lyric Poetry • Commentaries • Epic Poetry • Histories
Lyric PoetryOvid – The Art of Love • You, who for the first time are taking up arms beneath the standard of Venus, find out, in the first place, the woman you are fain to love. Your next task will be to bend her to your will; your third to safeguard that your love shall endure. This is my plan, my syllabus. This is the course my chariot will pursue; such is the goal that it will endeavour to attain.
Ovid . . . • Now, that you still are fancy-free, now is the time for you to choose a woman and say to her: "You are the only woman that I care for." She's not going to be wafted down to you from heaven on the wings of the wind. You must use your own-eyes to discover the girl that suits you. The hunter knows where to spread his nets in order to snare the stag; he knows the valley where the wild boar has his lair. The birdcatcher knows where he should spread his lime; and the fisherman, what waters most abound in fish.
Ovid . . . • As numerous as the ears of corn on Gargarus, grapes in Methymna, fish in the ocean, birds in the thickets, stars in the heavens, so numerous are the beautiful girls you'll find in Rome: Venus has made her seat of empire the city of her beloved Æneas.
And the last of Ovid • Dinners and banquets offer easy access to women's favour, and the pleasures of the grape are not the only entertainment you may find there; Love, with rosy cheeks, often presses in her frail hands the amphora of Bacchus. • http://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/ovid/lboo/lboo58.htm
Virgil’s Epic poetry • The Aeneid is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BC (between 29 and 19 BCE) that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who traveled to Italy where he became the ancestor of the Romans. It is written in dactylic hexameter (?!).
History - Livy Book I c. 1184 Fall of Troy; beginning of Aeneas' wanderings c. 1176 Aeneas founds Lavinium c. 1152 Aeneas' son Ascanius founds Alba Longa c. 1152-753 Period of kings at Alba Longa 753 Traditional date of founding of Rome by Romulus and Remus 753-509 Period of kings at Romec. 753-715 Romulus c. 715-673 Numa Pompiliusc. 673-642 Tullus Hostiliusc. 642-617 Ancus Marciusc. 616-579 L. Tarquinius Priscusc. 578-535 Servius Tulliusc. 534-510 L. Tarquinius Superbus
Livy – Books 2 & 3 • Livy, Book 2 • 509 Foundation of the Republic (consuls replace king); first treaty with Carthagec. 506 Horatius Cocles at the Bridgec. 506 Mucius Scaevola and Cloelia perform acts of heroismc. 496 Romans defeat Latins at the Battle of Lake Regillus 494 Conflict of the Orders begins (struggle between the patricians and plebeians) • Livy, Book 3 • 450 Twelve Tables (Roman laws written down by committee of 10)
Livy – Book 5 340 Latin War; Latin League dissolved 327-304 Romans fight the Samnites of Central Italy 280-275 Romans defeat Pyrrhus, general helping Greek cities of Southern Italy 272 Tarentum (in Southern Italy) surrenders to Rome 264 First gladiatorial show at Rome; Roman army enters Sicily, fights Carthaginians. 264-241 First Punic War (War with Carthage) 227 Sicily and Sardinia are made the first Roman provinces 218-201 Second Punic War (Rome vs. Carthage); Hannibal invades Italy 202 Roman general Scipio defeats Hannibal at battle of Zama; Carthage dependent of Rome 202-191 Romans conquer Cisalpine Gaul (= Northern Italy) 197-133 Rome fights wars in Spain
Livy - Book 5 continued 133 Tiberius Gracchus is tribune at Rome; Rome gains province of Asia 121 Gallia Narbonensis (Southern France) becomes a Roman province 107-100 Gaius Marius consul 6 times, reforms the army 100 Julius Caesar born 91-88 Rome fights war with its Italian allies (the Social War) 88 Roman general Sulla marches on Rome 83-82 Sulla returns to Rome; civil war 73-71 Spartacus leads slave revolt in Italy 60 First Triumvirate (Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus form coalition to run government)59Livy born in Patavium (Padua) in Northern Italy 58-49 Caesar leads military campaigns in Gaul 49 Civil War between Caesar and Pompey (Caesar defeats Pompey in 48)
Book 5 - continued • 47-44 Dictatorship of Julius Caesar; Caesar murdered on the Ides of March, 44. 43 Second Triumvirate (Octavian, Antony, and Lepidus) 31 Octavian defeats Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium29Livy begins to write his history at Rome 27 Octavian takes name of Augustus; "restores the republic" 19 Vergil dies, leaving Aeneid almost complete 27-AD14 Augustus first Roman emperor 9 Ara Pacis (Altar of Peace) dedicated at RomeAD c. 2 Ovid begins the Metamorphoses 14 Augustus' Res Gestae published after his death 14-37 Tiberius emperor17Livy dies in Patavium (Padua)
CommentariesCaesar’s De bello gallico • Caesar was a writer and a literary stylist. Ancient sources list him as a leader of the puristic style of writing, which was called the Attic Style, opposed to the more highly-wrought and flowery Asiatic Style, of which Cicero was considered a proponent. Caesar wrote his Commentaries on the Gallic War in the year 52-51 B.C., and left unfinished three books on the Civil War.
Adaptations Lyric Poetry of Ovid Epic Poetry of Virgil Histories-Plutarch and Livy Advancements Commentaries such as Caesar’s Commentaries on the Gallic Wars Literature
Law • Law Codes • Equity under the law • Trials • Procedures to follow • Ability to get rid of unreasonable laws
Adaptations Law Code Trials Advancements Equity under the law Procedures Unreasonable laws set aside Law