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The Roman Legacy

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  1. The Roman Legacy Analysis of the influence of Rome on the world

  2. An adaptation is . . . something, such as a device or mechanism, that is changed or changes so as to become suitable to a new or special application or situation An advancement is . . . a forward step, or an improvement; a gradual step, or growth, or development Adaptation or Advancement

  3. Art and Architecture • Statues • Dome • Columns • Mosaics • Concrete • Arch

  4. Augustus with Romulus

  5. Pantheon, 312 AD

  6. The Arch of Titus, 81 AD

  7. The Arch of Constantine, 312 AD

  8. Bas-relief on the Constantine’s Arch

  9. Bas-relief on the Constantine’s Arch

  10. Roman Forum

  11. Trajan’s Column

  12. Detail of Trajan’s Column •

  13. Roman Mosaics

  14. More Mosaics

  15. Coliseum In Rome

  16. Adaptations Statues Columns Arch Advancements Mosaic Concrete Dome Art and Architecture

  17. Science and Technology • Medical knowledge • Roads and bridges • Astronomical findings • Aqueducts

  18. Roman Roads

  19. Road near the Forum and the Tiber river.

  20. Roman Aqueducts Seine Aqueduct (France) Segovia Aqueduct (Spain)

  21. Roman Bath

  22. Bath England

  23. Pompeii Bath

  24. Hadrian’s Wall 73 miles across the south coast of Britain in 55 BCE

  25. Adaptations Medical Encyclopedia by Galen Ptolemy’s theory on earth as the center of the universe Advancements Roads – Appian Way – “ All roads lead to Rome Aqueducts Science and Technology

  26. Literature • Lyric Poetry • Commentaries • Epic Poetry • Histories

  27. Lyric PoetryOvid – The Art of Love • You, who for the first time are taking up arms beneath the standard of Venus, find out, in the first place, the woman you are fain to love. Your next task will be to bend her to your will; your third to safeguard that your love shall endure. This is my plan, my syllabus. This is the course my chariot will pursue; such is the goal that it will endeavour to attain.

  28. Ovid . . . • Now, that you still are fancy-free, now is the time for you to choose a woman and say to her: "You are the only woman that I care for." She's not going to be wafted down to you from heaven on the wings of the wind. You must use your own-eyes to discover the girl that suits you. The hunter knows where to spread his nets in order to snare the stag; he knows the valley where the wild boar has his lair. The birdcatcher knows where he should spread his lime; and the fisherman, what waters most abound in fish.

  29. Ovid . . . • As numerous as the ears of corn on Gargarus, grapes in Methymna, fish in the ocean, birds in the thickets, stars in the heavens, so numerous are the beautiful girls you'll find in Rome: Venus has made her seat of empire the city of her beloved Æneas.

  30. And the last of Ovid • Dinners and banquets offer easy access to women's favour, and the pleasures of the grape are not the only entertainment you may find there; Love, with rosy cheeks, often presses in her frail hands the amphora of Bacchus. •

  31. Virgil’s Epic poetry • The Aeneid is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BC (between 29 and 19 BCE) that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who traveled to Italy where he became the ancestor of the Romans. It is written in dactylic hexameter (?!).

  32. History - Livy Book I c. 1184      Fall of Troy; beginning of Aeneas' wanderings c. 1176      Aeneas founds Lavinium c. 1152      Aeneas' son Ascanius founds Alba Longa c. 1152-753   Period of kings at Alba Longa   753       Traditional date of founding of Rome by Romulus and Remus  753-509    Period of kings at Romec. 753-715    Romulus c. 715-673    Numa Pompiliusc. 673-642    Tullus Hostiliusc. 642-617    Ancus Marciusc. 616-579    L. Tarquinius Priscusc. 578-535    Servius Tulliusc. 534-510    L. Tarquinius Superbus

  33. Livy – Books 2 & 3 • Livy, Book 2 •   509       Foundation of the Republic (consuls replace king); first treaty with Carthagec. 506       Horatius Cocles at the Bridgec. 506       Mucius Scaevola and Cloelia perform acts of heroismc. 496       Romans defeat Latins at the Battle of Lake Regillus  494       Conflict of the Orders begins (struggle between the patricians and plebeians) • Livy, Book 3 •   450       Twelve Tables (Roman laws written down by committee of 10)

  34. Livy – Book 5    340       Latin War; Latin League dissolved  327-304    Romans fight the Samnites of Central Italy  280-275    Romans defeat Pyrrhus, general helping Greek cities of Southern Italy  272       Tarentum (in Southern Italy) surrenders to Rome  264       First gladiatorial show at Rome; Roman army enters Sicily, fights Carthaginians.  264-241    First Punic War (War with Carthage)  227       Sicily and Sardinia are made the first Roman provinces  218-201    Second Punic War (Rome vs. Carthage); Hannibal invades Italy  202       Roman general Scipio defeats Hannibal at battle of Zama; Carthage dependent of Rome  202-191    Romans conquer Cisalpine Gaul (= Northern Italy)  197-133    Rome fights wars in Spain

  35. Livy - Book 5 continued 133       Tiberius Gracchus is tribune at Rome; Rome gains province of Asia  121       Gallia Narbonensis (Southern France) becomes a Roman province  107-100    Gaius Marius consul 6 times, reforms the army  100       Julius Caesar born  91-88      Rome fights war with its Italian allies (the Social War) 88        Roman general Sulla marches on Rome  83-82      Sulla returns to Rome; civil war  73-71      Spartacus leads slave revolt in Italy  60        First Triumvirate (Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus form coalition to run government)59Livy born in Patavium (Padua) in Northern Italy  58-49      Caesar leads military campaigns in Gaul  49        Civil War between Caesar and Pompey (Caesar defeats Pompey in 48)

  36. Book 5 - continued • 47-44      Dictatorship of Julius Caesar; Caesar murdered on the Ides of March, 44.  43        Second Triumvirate (Octavian, Antony, and Lepidus)  31        Octavian defeats Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium29Livy begins to write his history at Rome  27        Octavian takes name of Augustus; "restores the republic"  19        Vergil dies, leaving Aeneid almost complete  27-AD14  Augustus first Roman emperor  9         Ara Pacis (Altar of Peace) dedicated at RomeAD c. 2        Ovid begins the Metamorphoses  14        Augustus' Res Gestae published after his death  14-37      Tiberius emperor17Livy dies in Patavium (Padua)

  37. CommentariesCaesar’s De bello gallico • Caesar was a writer and a literary stylist. Ancient sources list him as a leader of the puristic style of writing, which was called the Attic Style, opposed to the more highly-wrought and flowery Asiatic Style, of which Cicero was considered a proponent. Caesar wrote his Commentaries on the Gallic War in the year 52-51 B.C., and left unfinished three books on the Civil War.

  38. Adaptations Lyric Poetry of Ovid Epic Poetry of Virgil Histories-Plutarch and Livy Advancements Commentaries such as Caesar’s Commentaries on the Gallic Wars Literature

  39. Law • Law Codes • Equity under the law • Trials • Procedures to follow • Ability to get rid of unreasonable laws

  40. Adaptations Law Code Trials Advancements Equity under the law Procedures Unreasonable laws set aside Law

  41. Which is the most significant? WHY?