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Using a Response to Intervention Approach to Address Behavior Concerns. Nebraska RTI Summer Institute July 31, 2007. Presentation Objectives. To describe a three-tier approach to providing behavior support for students

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Using a response to intervention approach to address behavior concerns l.jpg

Using a Response to Intervention Approach to Address Behavior Concerns

Nebraska RTI Summer Institute

July 31, 2007


Presentation objectives l.jpg
Presentation Objectives Behavior Concerns

  • To describe a three-tier approach to providing behavior support for students

  • To highlight examples of an RTI process used to address behavior concerns in Lincoln Public Schools

  • To address factors needed to have successful RTI procedures in place for behavior support


What do we know about rti reading l.jpg
What Do We Know About RTI Reading? Behavior Concerns

  • Tier 1: Core Classroom Instruction

    • Universal screening

    • Strong general education curriculum

    • Designed to prevent more intensive reading problems

  • Tier 2: Supplementary Intervention

    • Student data indicate who gets more intervention

    • Small groups, more intensive instruction

  • Tier 3: Intensive Intervention

    • Student data indicate who gets more intervention

    • Typically individualized, may include verification for special education


What do we know about rti behavior l.jpg
What Do We Know About RTI Behavior? Behavior Concerns

  • Tier 1: Core Classroom Instruction

    • Are we teaching all our students expected behaviors?

    • Do we have a screening process to find students who need more intense behavior support?

  • Tier 2: Supplementary Intervention

    • Are we using data to tell us who needs more intensive behavioral interventions?

    • Can we group students with similar need for behavior instruction?

  • Tier 3: Intensive Intervention

    • Are we using FBA to develop individualized intervention plans?

      IF YES, THEN WE ARE ALREADY DOING RTI BEHAVIOR!


Tier 1 core curriculum instruction l.jpg
Tier 1: Core Curriculum Instruction Behavior Concerns

  • Detentions, suspensions, expulsions DON’T WORK to change behavior in the long term!

  • School-wide Positive Behavior Support (PBS) is a set of strategies and systems to increase the capacity of schools to

    • reduce school disruption

    • educate all students including those with problem behaviors


Major ideas in pbs l.jpg
Major Ideas in PBS Behavior Concerns

  • Invest in Prevention

  • Teach, monitor, and reward BEFORE punishment

  • Differentiate Systems as Needed

    • Different systems for different challenges

      • School-wide (Primary Prevention)

      • Targeted Group (Secondary Prevention)

      • Intensive Individual (Tertiary Prevention)

  • Implement for Sustainable Effects

  • Evaluate using information for decision-making

Note: Some slides adapted from PBS training materials, University of Oregon Educational and Community Supports.


Slide7 l.jpg

Tertiary Prevention Behavior Concerns:

Specialized

Individualized

Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior

CONTINUUM OF

SCHOOL-WIDE

POSITIVE BEHAVIOR

SUPPORT

~5%

Secondary Prevention:

Specialized Group

Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior

~15%

Primary Prevention:

School-/Classroom-

Wide Systems for

All Students,

Staff, & Settings

~80% of Students


Pbs is not l.jpg
PBS is NOT… Behavior Concerns

  • a specific practice or curriculum…it’s a general approach to preventing problem behavior

  • limited to any particular group of students…it’s for ALL students

  • new…it’s based on a long history of behavioral practices and effective instructional design and strategies


Invest in prevention build a culture of competence l.jpg
Invest in Prevention: Behavior ConcernsBuild a Culture of Competence

  • Define behavioral expectations

  • Teach behavioral expectations

  • Monitor and reward appropriate behavior

  • Providecorrective consequences for behavioral errors

  • Information-based problem solving


Define school wide expectations for social behavior l.jpg
Define School-wide Expectations Behavior Concernsfor Social Behavior

  • Identify 3-5 Expectations

  • Short statements

  • Positive Statements (what to do instead of what not to do)

  • Memorable

  • Examples:

    • Be Respectful, Be Responsible, Be Safe, Be Kind, Be a Friend, Be-there-be-ready, Hands and feet to self, Respect self, others, property, Follow directions of adults



Teach behavioral expectations l.jpg
Teach Behavioral Expectations gymnasium.

  • Transform broad school-wide expectations into specific, observable behaviors.

    • Use the Expectations by Settings Matrix

  • Teach in the actual settings where behaviors are to occur

  • Teach (a) the words, and (b) the actions.

  • Build a social culture that is predictable and focused on student success


  • Why teach expectations l.jpg
    Why Teach Expectations? gymnasium.

    • Cannot assume students know how to apply rules in each setting…need to teach behaviors in context!

    • Teaching allows students to practice appropriate behavior and it builds fluency

    • Allows students to see non-examples of expectation

    • Decreases student response “I didn’t know…”


    On going reward of appropriate behavior l.jpg
    On-going Reward of Appropriate Behavior gymnasium.

    • Every faculty and staff member acknowledges appropriate behavior.

      • 5 to 1 ratio of positive to negative contacts

  • System that makes acknowledgement easy and simple for students and staff.

  • Different strategies for acknowledging appropriate behavior

    • Classroom-wide announcements

    • Raffles

    • Open gym

    • Tickets

    • Parking space


  • Discourage and interrupt problem behaviors l.jpg
    Discourage and Interrupt Problem Behaviors gymnasium.

    • Do not ignore problem behavior

    • Clear guidelines for what is handled in class versus sent to the office

    • Prevent problem behaviors from being rewarded

    • Do not expect negative consequences to change behavior patterns. Negative consequences are a way to “keep the lid on.” Teaching changes behavior.


    Information based problem solving l.jpg
    Information-based Problem Solving gymnasium.

    • Survey staff to define need (Effective Behavior Support Survey)

    • Assessments of PBS implementation (School-wide Evaluation Tool, observations, interviews)

    • Review student data regularly (office discipline referrals and/or other indicators)

    • Other screening tools?

    • Examples of data collection tools at www.pbis.org and www.swis.org



    Slide25 l.jpg

    High School in Iowa 02-05 gymnasium.

    2002-03 2003-04 2004-05


    Slide26 l.jpg

    Iowa gymnasium.

    Elementary

    03-04 04-05

    Elementary

    03-04 04-05


    Slide27 l.jpg

    Iowa gymnasium.

    Middle School

    02-03 03-04 04-05

    Middle School

    03-04 04-05


    Tier 1 in practice lincoln public schools l.jpg
    Tier 1 in Practice: Lincoln Public Schools gymnasium.

    • Plans for universal screening of behavior

    • PBS in Lincoln Public Schools

    • What is needed to make Tier 1 work?


    Behavior support challenges l.jpg
    Behavior Support Challenges gymnasium.

    • Resources (time and money) in schools are limited

    • Need to match level of support to level of the student’s behavioral challenges

    • Need an efficient and effective intermediate level intervention system that targets students who are not responding to the school-wide system, but are not in need of individual, intense support


    The response supplementary interventions tier 2 l.jpg
    The Response: gymnasium.Supplementary Interventions (Tier 2)

    • Targets groups of students who:

      • Fail to respond to school-wide and classroom expectations

      • Are not currently engaging in dangerous or extremely disruptive behavior

    • Efficient - Similar set of behavioral strategies are used across a group of students needing similar levels of support

    • Effective - Decreasing problem behavior in classroom, increasing academic engagement, and decreasing office discipline referrals


    Steps for targeted intervention support l.jpg
    Steps for Targeted gymnasium.Intervention Support

    • Identify candidates for targeted interventions

    • Identify specific student needs

    • Group students according to similar needs

    • Design and implement intervention support

    • Complete progress monitoring during intervention

    • Monitor integrity of implementation

    • Evaluate the impact of the program


    Identify students for targeted inventions l.jpg
    Identify Students for gymnasium.Targeted Inventions

    • Identify students for targeted intervention support based upon:

      • Office Referral Data (e.g., 3-5 office referrals)

      • Behavior Incident Reports

      • Teacher Nomination

      • Other screening data


    Identify specific student needs l.jpg
    Identify Specific Student Needs gymnasium.

    • Identify student needs

      • What skills are they missing?

      • What instruction do they need?

      • What type of reinforcement do they need?

      • What are the effective consequences?

    • Use current student data (office referrals), teacher interviews, student interviews, etc.


    Group students according to need l.jpg
    Group Students gymnasium.According to Need

    • Within the at-risk population, look for small groups of students with similar needs

    • For example, do you have a small group of students who are fighting at recess and need additional instruction on recess behaviors and how to use words instead of fists?


    Design and implement intervention support l.jpg
    Design and Implement Intervention Support gymnasium.

    Identify what instruction will be provided

    • Who will teach

    • How often

    • Required materials


    Complete progress monitoring l.jpg
    Complete Progress Monitoring gymnasium.

    • Identify what data will be collected

    • Identify who will collect the data

    • Identify the baseline level of performance and the goal

    • Identify the decision-making rule

    • Collect progress monitoring data throughout the intervention


    Monitor integrity of implementation l.jpg
    Monitor Integrity of Implementation gymnasium.

    • Need interventions that are implemented with integrity in order to make decisions about the effectiveness of the intervention

    • Implementation as scheduled

    • Implementation of key components

    • How? - Implementation logs, interviews, observations


    Evaluate the impact of the program l.jpg
    Evaluate the Impact of the Program gymnasium.

    • Make decisions about individual students

      • Modify, continue, or terminate the intervention

    • Make decisions about the overall effectiveness of the program

      • # or % of students who were successful

      • # or % of decrease in office referrals


    Tier 2 progress monitoring example l.jpg
    Tier 2 Progress Monitoring Example gymnasium.

    Grade 2 Social Skills Group


    Supplemental interventions l.jpg
    Supplemental Interventions gymnasium.

    • Evidence-based Social-Emotional-Learning Programs

      • Blueprints for Violence Prevention (http://www.colorado.edu/cspv/blueprints/)

      • SAMHSA: US Department of Health and Human Services Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (http://nrepp.samhsa.gov).

      • CASEL: Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (http://www.casel.org)

      • OJJDP: US Department of Education Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (http://www.dsgonline.com/mpg2.5/mpg_index.htm)

      • What Works Clearinghouse (http://www.whatworks.ed.gov/)

      • SDFS: US Department of Education Office of Safe and Drug Free Schools (http://www.ed.gov/admins/lead/safety/exemplary01/exemplary01.pdf)


    Supplemental interventions41 l.jpg
    Supplemental Interventions gymnasium.

    • Other social skills programs

    • Incentive plans

    • Check-in/Check-out

    • Behavior Report Card

    • Behavior Education Program (BEP)

      Crone, D. A., Horner, R. H., & Hawken, L.. S. (2004). Responding to problem behavior in schools: The Behavior Education Program. New York: Guilford.


    Tier 3 intensive interventions overview of the process l.jpg
    Tier 3: Intensive Interventions gymnasium.Overview of the Process

    • Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA)

    • Behavior Support Plan


    Functional behavioral assessment l.jpg
    Functional Behavioral Assessment gymnasium.

    • Clearly describes the challenging behaviors, including behaviors that go together (A-B-Cs)

    • Identifies the events, times, and situations that maintain the challenging behaviors (attention, escape)

    • Develops one or more summary statements or hypotheses that describes specific behaviors, the types of situations in which they occur, and the reinforcers that maintain the behaviors


    Functional behavioral assessment44 l.jpg
    Functional Behavioral Assessment gymnasium.

    • Collects directly observed data that support summary statements

    • It is a process to understand the structure and function of behavior to TEACH and promote effective alternatives, NOT just to eliminate undesirable behaviors


    Why an fba is important l.jpg
    Why an FBA is Important gymnasium.

    • It increases the efficiency and effectiveness of strategies for changing problem behavior

    • It increases your attention to the things that you have control over, that you can alter, to make an impact on the student’s behavior

    • It increases your sense of efficacy in being able to bring about real, important changes for students and staff

    • It leads to the development of Positive Behavioral Support Plans


    When to identify the function l.jpg
    When to Identify the Function gymnasium.

    • Major problem behaviors for individual students

    • School-wide/Class-wide positive support efforts are not working

    • Typical discipline procedures ineffective

    • Behavior intervention plan required for 504 or IEP

    • Ten cumulative days of suspension (manifestation determination for special education students)

    • Standards of best practice recommend the use of FBA within a problem-solving approach


    Data from an fba l.jpg
    Data from an FBA gymnasium.

    • Operational definition of the behavior: What does the behavior look like?

    • Antecedents: How do you know the behavior is going to happen?

    • Setting events: What makes the behavior more likely?

    • Consequences: Why does the behavior keep happening?

    • Function: What is the primary purpose of the behavior?


    Functions of behavior l.jpg
    Functions of Behavior gymnasium.

    • Behavior is functional: it serves a purpose

    • All behaviors are motivated by a certain outcome or desire

    • Common functions:

      • Obtain

        • Stimulation

        • Attention

        • Objects

        • Communication

      • Escape or Avoid

        • Pain

        • Attention

        • Difficult Tasks

    • Avoid Colloquial Functions:

    • “Revenge”

    • “Basically Evil”

    • “Control”


    Fba methods l.jpg
    FBA Methods gymnasium.

    • Indirect information gathering

      • Record review

      • Interviews

      • Rating scales

    • Direct observation

    • Functional analysis


    Information gathering l.jpg
    Information Gathering gymnasium.

    • Interviews with teachers, student, parents

      • Description of behavior

      • Strategies already tried

      • Guess about what motivates behavior

      • How often behaviors occur

      • How long it has been a problem

      • When behaviors occur or do not occur

      • Who is present when behavior occurs

      • Possible skill deficits

      • Events surrounding behavior


    Information gathering51 l.jpg
    Information Gathering gymnasium.

    • Direct observation

      • Record instances of behavior

      • Record what happened before the behavior occurred (antecedents)

      • Record what happened after the behavior occurred (consequences)

      • Look for patterns (10-15 instances of behavior)


    Information gathering52 l.jpg
    Information Gathering gymnasium.

    • Functional Analysis

      • Control and manipulate variables that may contribute to problem behavior

      • Analyze effects of manipulations

      • For example, vary task length and/or task difficulty and observe impact on work completion

      • Needs to be highly structured and closely monitored


    Effective environments l.jpg
    Effective Environments gymnasium.

    • Problem behaviors are irrelevant

      • Aversive events are removed

      • Access to positive events are more common

    • Problem behaviors are inefficient

      • Appropriate behavioral alternatives available

      • Appropriate behavioral alternatives are taught

    • Problem behaviors are ineffective

      • Problem behaviors are not rewarded


    Intervention planning l.jpg
    Intervention Planning gymnasium.

    • Prevention (Make problem behaviors irrelevant by managing antecedents and setting events):

      • Schedule

      • Curriculum (content, sequence)

      • Instruction

    • Skill Building (Teach desired behaviors)

      • Teaching = delivering events that change behavior, not just delivering curriculum

      • Replacement behaviors (maintain same function as problem behavior)

      • Adaptive skills


    Intervention planning cont l.jpg
    Intervention planning (cont.) gymnasium.

    • Manage consequences

      • Prevent reinforcement of problem behavior

      • Increase reinforcement of desired and replacement behaviors

      • Negative consequences

        • The use of socially acceptable punishers may be needed to prevent reward of problem behaviors

        • Do not add negative consequences to the plan until all other components are defined


    Intervention planning cont56 l.jpg
    Intervention Planning (cont.) gymnasium.

    • Implementation Plan (Who will do what when?)

      • Schedule meeting times to review

      • Schedule teaching times

      • Plan data collection and display

    • Plan Evaluation (Did it work?)

      • Use data to make decisions

      • Make decision rules when to change intervention


    Tier 3 progress monitoring example l.jpg
    Tier 3 Progress Monitoring Example gymnasium.

    Intervention 2


    Tiers 2 and 3 in practice lincoln public schools l.jpg
    Tiers 2 and 3 in Practice: Lincoln Public Schools gymnasium.

    • Interventions being used

    • Progress monitoring methods

    • What is needed to make Tiers 2 & 3 work?


    Special education verification l.jpg
    Special Education Verification gymnasium.

    • Three questions should be addressed to determine eligibility and need for special education:

      • How does the student’s rate of progress in developing expected skills compare to a certain standard?

      • How does the student’s current level of performance compare to a certain standard?

      • What are the student’s instructional needs in the area of behavior (i.e., curriculum, instruction, accommodations)?

    • An RTI Behavior process can easily address these three questions!


    Thank you l.jpg
    Thank you! gymnasium.

    • Questions?

    • Contact Information:


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