World War II Review American Studies Semester II
The Road to War • The Rise of Dictatorships • Hitler in Germany • Mussolini in Italy • Tojo in Japan • Stalin in Russia • Aggression in Asia (Manchuria) • Aggression in Europe • Ineffectiveness of the League of Nations
War Begins • France and Great Britain officially declared war on Germany in 1939 after Germany invaded Poland. • When the war begins, the United States remains neutral.
Allied Powers vs. Axis Powers • Allied Powers • Russia • Great Britain • France • China • United States (will join the war in 1941) • Axis Powers • Germany • Japan • Italy
U.S. Neutrality • While the U.S. claims to be neutral in the beginning of WWII, our government helps the Allied Powers in two ways: • Cash-and-Carry • Lend-Lease Act
U.S. Embargo on Japan • What foreign policy tool did the U.S. use against Japan? • Dec. 7, 1941 Japan bombs Pearl Harbor • U.S. Response: FDR signs the declaration of war on Dec. 8 • How does U.S. foreign policy change?
U.S. Homefront: Social and Economic Impacts • War Production Board: directed the conversion of existing factories to wartime production and supervised the building of new plants • Rationing: • Families had rationing cards determining what they could purchase at the supermarket • Rationing of gas • Propaganda • Liberty Bonds • More Americans had to pay income taxes • Selective Training and Service Act: provided the first peacetime draft in American history; all men, ages 21 to 35, had to register for the draft • Victory Gardens • Canning vegetables • Women took over the jobs men had left to fight the war
Selective Training and Service Act • First peacetime draft in American history • Registration of all men between ages 21 and 35 • Women also volunteered as nurses, did office work, drove vehicles, and ferried planes in order to free men for active duty
African Americans • Many blacks moved into better-paying industrial jobs • African Americans served in segregated units and until 1943 were kept out of combat • African Americans continued to struggle for equality in pay and promotion • Many blacks moved northward to work in war plants; they faced discrimination in housing
Mexican Americans • 300,000 Mexican Americans served in the military • Many factories opened up jobs to Mexican Americans • Prejudice and discrimination against Hispanics in jobs, housing, and recreation facilities caused resentment • Zoot-Suit Riots (sailors were attacking Mexican Americans in Los Angeles)
Women • Rosie the Riveter • Women took on traditionally male jobs in factories, on farms, etc.
The War Ends • Atomic bombs are dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki • War ends in 1945
New Foreign Policy • U.S. emerged as a world power with global responsibilities • U.S. realized the need for Wilson’s version of an international organization to keep the peace. • New era of international cooperation • 1944 -International Monetary Fund • 1945 -United Nations • 1948 -International tariff regulation (GATT) • U.S. is a leading military power