1885-1889 Democrat Lived 1837-1908 (71) Vp- Thomas A Hendricks New Jersey GROVER CLEVELAND AKA: “Big Steve” and “Uncle Jumbo” “Public office is a public trust.”
A. (1) Election of 1884 VS. Grover ClevelandJames Blaine(Democrat) (Republican)
1. 3rd party Candidates a. Greenback Party: Benjamin F. Butler Prohibition Party: John St. John b. Neither of these parties received any electoral votes. c. Why are 3rd parties important? (2.)Some third-party goals eventually become planks (important issues) in the platforms of the major parties.
2. Republican Ticket a. Presidential nominee: James G. Blaine b. Vice-Presidential nominee: John A. Logan
c. Three-Way Split i. Stalwarts: supported Grant for a third term (remember, they were against civil service reform). ii. Half-Breeds: moderate government reformers. Supported Blaine fully (He was considered the leader of the Half-breeds…)
iii.Mugwumps: (Indian word for “big chief”) -Opposed Blaine after the Mulligan Letters came out, which implicated him in graft from railroad interests. • Because of Blaine’s nomination,they gave their support to Cleveland(these republicans supported the Democratic candidate!!!! Aghhhh…)
Stalwarts, Half-Breeds, and Mugwumps were? a. Names for Democratic Party reformers. b. Native American political groups of the late 19c. c. Factions of the Republican Party that fought over issues like civil service reform. d. Independent political parties.
d. Attack on Cleveland i. The campaigns of both parties turned from focus on issues of concern and more to personal morality. ii. Republicans ran with a story from the Buffalo Evening Telegraph that exposed a pre-marital affair and an illegitimate child of Cleveland.
The Republican chant: “Ma, Ma…where’s my pa?Going to the White House, ha… ha… ha…!”
3. Democratic Ticket a. Presidential Nominee: Grover Cleveland b. Vice Presidential Nominee: Thomas Hendricks (Died in his sleep in 1885- no known cause Other than being 66 yrs old way back in 1885!!!)
c. Attack on Blaine i. Democrats ran with the charges of graft against Blaine ii. The Democratic chant: “Blaine, Blaine, James G. Blaine! Continental liar from the state of Maine!”
Blaine was a Half-Breed Republican who was for Civil Service reform; however, because of business corruption, he lost a lot of Republican support (Mugwumps) to Cleveland. Blaine in 1884
(1) Election results Cleveland wins with 219 electoral votes.
B. Cleveland’s First Term 1. First Democratic elected since 1856. 2. Cleveland ended fraudulent grants to some 80 million acres of Western public lands. (remember- they had to live on and farm the land??) 3. Vetoed hundreds of pension bills that would have sent federal funds to undeserving Civil War vets.
“Public money appropriated for pensions...should be devoted to the indemnification of those who in the defense of the Union and in the nation’s service have worthily suffered, and who in the day of their dependence resulting from such suffering are entitled to the benefactions of their Government.” - Cleveland
4. Major Legislation: a. Presidential Succession Act (1886): Provided that on the death, incapacity, or resignation of both the president and vice-president, the line of succession to the presidency would fall to the cabinet in chronological order of the creation of each department. • Will be replaced by PSA of 1947 and the 25th Amendment (1964)
Growing Labor Movement Issues The Knights of Labor had been a strong early labor union- remember, they let almost anyone in… (men, women. Black, white, skilled. Unskilled).. They will not last long
(4)Haymarket Square Riot- (1886) Tuesday May 4, 1886 in Chicago, it began as a rally, a peaceful public meeting in support of Striking workers. which became violent. An unknown person threw a bomb at police as they marched to disperse the meeting. The bomb blast and ensuing gunfire resulted in the deaths of seven police officers and an unknown number of civilians. 8 anarchists were tried for murder. 4 were put to death, and 1 committed suicide in prison. The EFFECT? This bad media attention hurt the Knights Of Labor membership- causing their downfall.
The Haymarket bombing of May 4, 1886, was important to the labor movement because it? • Aroused public opposition against labor, contributed to the decline of the Knights of Labor, and aroused an increase in the membership of the AFL. b. Brought about the use of collective bargaining to settle labor disputes peacefully. c. demonstrated to unskilled workers their vulnerability to strikebreaking actions. d. Began a tradition of federal intervention by U. S. troops.
(5) American Federation of Labor • It was founded in Columbus, Ohio in 1886 by Samuel Gompers • The AFL stressed foremost the concern with working conditions, pay and control over jobs, relegating political goals to a minor role • The AFL organized only skilled workers in craft unions and became an organization of mostly white men. They used STRIKES to get their way
Gompers and Debs Biography
A. Major Economic Legislation (7)Wabash v. Illinois (1886):Supreme Court reversed its Munn v. Illinois decision, ruling that state governments could not regulate RRs…. Who do you assume this will hurt??
2. (8)Interstate Commerce Act (1887):created the Interstate Commerce Commission (the first regulatory agency)to regulate interstate railroad rates. a. Ensured that rates ($) were “fair and just” b. Put an end to rebates c. **Problem** It Lacked enforcement power-if someone broke the new law there was nothing anyone could do…
One of the most significant aspects of the Interstate Commerce Act was that it? a. revolutionized the business system. b. represented the first large-scale attempt by the federal government to regulate business. c. actually did nothing to control the abuses of big business. d. failed to prohibit some of the worst abuses of big business, such as pools and rebates.
B. Tariff Issue 1. After the Civil War, Congress raisedtariffs to protect new US industries. 2. Big business wanted to continue this; consumers did not. 3. 1885 tariffs earned the US $100 mil. in surplus! 4. Tariffs were a major issue in the 1888 presidential election!
(12) Railroad’s Effect on Native Americans… • The railroad made it possible for more settlers to move to the west, which killed off more of the buffalo herds, and forced more native Americans onto reservations- because their main LIFE SOURCE was gone…
Which pair of events did the first event most directly influence the second? a. discovery of gold in California --> Louisiana Purchase b. building of the transcontinental railroad --> disappearance of the frontier c. settling of the Oregon Territory --> passage of the Homestead Act d. assimilation of Native American Indians into American society --> passage of the Dawes Act
A. Minority Issues • African Americans a. Believing African Americans were inferior, he opposed integrated schools in New York. b. In believing that government should not interfere with what he regarded as a social problem, he opposed efforts to protect the suffrage of African Americans.
Chinese a. He worked to limit Chinese immigration and to prohibit those who had left the United States to visit relatives in China from returning. b. The principal difference between Chinese and European immigrants, he believed, was the Chinese immigrants’ unwillingness to assimilate into American society.
b. (9)Dawes Severalty Act (1887): i. Provided for the breakup of reservations, distributing 160 acres of farmland or 320 acres of grazing land to those Indians agreeing to the Act’s terms. TO ASSIMILATE THEM!! ii. The Indians would becomeU.S. citizens after 25 years. iii. Leftover land would be sold to other U.S. citizens and RR companies. This led to the loss of much of the “Native Americans’” land.
3. Native Americans a. In Cleveland's view, the Native Americans were wards of the nation, like wayward but promising children in need of a guardian. b. He sought to assimilate them into white society by means of education, private land ownership, and parental guidance from the federal government.
160 acres to Native Americans on reservations… they had to farm it and after 25 years they could become citizens of the US Dawes Act
Dawes Severalty Act (1887):Assimilation Policy Carlisle Indian School, PA
Dawes Severalty Act, 1887An act to provide for the allotment of lands in severalty to Indians on the various reservations, and to extend the protection of the laws of the United States and the Territories over the Indians, and for other purposes. Based on this excerpt from the Dawes Severalty Act, US domestic policy toward Native Americans in the late 1800s made an attempt to a. grant them full citizenship and due process. b. increase the land holdings of western tribes c. force Native American Indians to give up their traditional cultures. d. give their tribal groups authority over their own governmental affairs.
4. Women begin a fight for the right to vote This cartoon shows Susan B. Anthony chasing after President Grover Cleveland in her fight for women's right to vote
(14) The Statue of Liberty 1. Located in NYC’s harbor , on Staten Island this gift of friendship from France serves as a welcome to Immigrants at Ellis island and is a universal Symbol of freedom and democracy. 2. It was dedicated on Oct. 28, 1886.