Chapter 2 Patterns of Associations
Dichotomous Keys: a list of guidelines to help you identify an organism that you do not know • Follow along while Ms. Bjelko reviews how to use a dichotomous key to identify an insect. • YOU will individually answer the 2 analysis questions AND identify the 14 sharks into the correct family. • THERE ARE NO DUPLICATE ANSWERS
There are many ways to organize marine organisms. • By food choice • By evolutionary history • By reproductive methods • By geography • By body structure • …..and many, many more!
Benthos- all organisms that live on the bottom of the ocean. • Within the Pelagic Division: • Nekton- large, actively swimming organisms • Plankton- tiny organisms with little swimming ability- mainly pulled around by currents. • Phytoplankton- photosynthetic • Zooplankton- non-photosynthetic
Organisms have adaptations for their particular home. • Evolutionary adapatations • Any inherited trait that helps the organism stay alive. • Examples? • Ecological adaptations • Adjustments made by a living organism during it’s life to deal with changes in it’s habitat • Examples?
NOTE for students • You will not have to memorize the full classification of marine organisms, but you must know the RULES and GENERAL CATEGORIES for classification • YOU WERE ALREADY TAUGHT • K P C O F G S
Biological Species Concept • Species: populations of organisms having common characteristics and successfully breed with each other • There are other ways to define a species, but we will work with this one!
3 Domains from common ancestry • Domain Bacteria (Kingdom Eubacteria-Prokaryotes) • Domain Archaea (Kingdom Archaebacteria- Prokaryotes) • Domain Eukarya (4 other kingdoms- Eukaryotes) • Kingdoms Plantae, Animalia, Fungi, Protista
IF YOU ARE IN AP BIO DO NOT ANSWER THIS QUESTION: Which domain is most like the FIRST living things on earth?
6 Kingdoms • Archaebacteria • Eubacteria • Protista • Fungi • Plantae • Animalia Biology is constantly changing- this is how organisms used to be grouped: MONERA became the 2 different groups of bacteria. Next Potential Change: Get rid of Protista and split plants into 2 different kingdoms
Taxonomy of the Blue Whale • Kingdom Animalia • Phylum Chordata • Class Mammalia • Order Cetacea • SuborderMysticeti • Family Balaenopteridae • Genus Balaenoptera • Species musculus
Rules for Taxonomy • Each individual group of organisms must have its own unique species name. • BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE • Name is the genus and species of the organism • Latin • Created by person/people who identify the species
Binomial Nomenclature of the Blue Whale • Balaenopteramusculus • Also correct to write it as • Balaenopteramusculus • Any other variations are INCORRECT
How do we classify an organism? • Usually by physical traits • Also adding DNA sequences now that we can easily get that info
Phylogenic trees • Aka cladogram • Charts showing the evolutionary relationships between organisms. • Arranged by looking at/for common anscestral species fossils OR • Comparing DNA
Symbiosis • Living together • Different variations in the oceans