Planting Colonies In North America Chapter 3
Important Topics • A comparison of the European colonies established in North America in the 17th century. • The English and Algonquian colonial encounter in the Chesapeake • The role of religious dissent in the planting of the New England colonies. • The restoration of the Stuart Monarchy & the creation of the new proprietary colonies. • Indian warfare & internal conflict at the end of the 17th century.
European Colonies “Exclusion” “Frontiers of Inclusion” • Term to describe New Spain and New France where native peoples were incorporated into colonial society and there was a great deal of cultural mixing. • Term to describe the Dutch and English colonies where settlers and natives lived in separate societies and there war very little mixing of cultures.
England in the Chesapeake • Jamestown & the Powhatan Confederacy • Tobacco, Expansion and Warfare • Maryland • Indentured Servants • Community Life in the Chesapeake
Jamestown & the Powhatan confederacy • King James I gave a royal charted to the Virginia Company, a group of London investors who sent ships to Chesapeake Bay in 1607. They settled in Jamestown and it became the first permanent settlement in North America.
Tobacco, Expansion and Warfare Introduced to England by Francis Drake, tobacco became the 1st money maker for Jamestown. 1662- 100,000 English colonists were sent to Jamestown.
Tobacco, Expansion and Warfare • English colonial characteristics- massive immigration, especially families; plantation agriculture based on a lot of soil and labor; poor relationship with natives; early form of representative gov’t.
House of burgess The legislature of colonial VA. Organized in 1619, it was the first representative gov’t in the English colonies.
Maryland • Settled by Catholics, the only Catholic colony • A proprietary colony, the Calvert family were sole owners of the land and divided the land into manors. • Used headright grants 1st to get laborers.
Indentured Servants ¾’s of English migrants were indentured servants, men & women contracted labor to a master for a fixed time.
Indentured Servants Masters Servants • Young, single mostly men who served 2 to 7 years. Some were convicts or vagabonds. It was close to slavery. • Obliged to feed, cloth and house servants. Many masters treated servants just as harsh as slaves.
Community Life in the Chesapeake • High mortality rates due to malaria • Small family size • Women held more power…could own land • Kinship bonds were weak • Dispersed settlements • Rough conditions • Few community institutions
Section 2 The New England colonies
The New England colonies • Social & Political Values of Puritanism • Early contacts in New England • Plymouth Colony & the Mayflower Compact • The Massachusetts Bay Colony • Indians & Puritans • The New England Merchants • Community & Family in Massachusetts • Dissent & New Communities
The New England Colonies • Climate & geography much different from the Chesapeake. • No “merchantable commodities” grown there • Was a safe haven for Protestant dissenters from England
POlitical & Social Values of Puritanism • Followed John Calvin’s beliefs of hard work and enterprise….attracted merchants, commercial farmers & entrepreneurs. • Wanted to return to a traditional rural community. • The church needs to monitor an individual’s behavior.
Early Contacts Many natives, French and Dutch were wiped out by disease. New England was sparcely populated and became a perfect place for religious dissenters to settle.
Plymouth colony & the Mayflower Compact • Pilgrims, also known as Separatists, wanted to completely break from the Catholic Church. They were governed by the Mayflower Compact, the 1st document of self- governance in North America.
Massachusetts Bay colony • Led by John Winthrop, the Puritans settled in Salem, MA, also known as the “city on a hill”. The Puritans were primarily wealthy businessmen. • The Great Migration is the official name of the Puritan migration from 1629 to 1643.
Indians & Puritans The English used a variety of ways to pressure Native leaders into signing quitclaims, agreements relinquishing specific lands.
Indians and Puritans • Ways the Puritans tricked Natives into giving up lands: • Writing land transfers and agreements in English • Imposing large fines for simple violations & then taking lands as payment. • Using women to gain land
New England Merchants • New England became a leading commercial region early in its settlement. Boston became the 3rd largest English commercial center. England exported lumber and cod as well as traded goods for sugar, molasses and rum with the West Indies.
Community & Family in MA • Well-organized communities based on a social order • Mass General Court, a system of self-government • Clustered settlements led to strong communities • Well-disciplines and educated society • Women were subordinate to men • Cultural mistrust and stereotypes of women…Salem Witch Trials
Dissent & New communities • Religiously intolerant towards other groups and they were forced out of Mass bay colony: • Thomas Hooker believed in women’s suffrage and founded Connecticut. • Roger Williams believed in religious toleration, fair treatment of the natives and separation of church & state. He founded Providence, RI. • Anne Hutchinson was banished for criticizing the piety of minsters and excommunicated. She founded RI.
Section 3 The Proprietary Colonies
The Proprietary Colonies • Early Carolina • From New Netherland to New York • The Founding of Pennsylvania • Also known as The Restoration Colonies after the restoration of the Stuart Monarchy and the reign of King Charles II.
Early Carolina • Early Carolina stretched from North Carolina to Spanish Florida. The north and south of Carolina was settled by drastically different groups and then split.
New Netherlands & NY Cont. New Netherland • The English implemented the Trade & navigation Act in 1751 that barred Dutch ships from English territories which led to a series naval wars with Holland from 1652 to 1654 • After 2 more wars, the English captured New Amsterdam and gained control of New Netherland.
NY Land was given to Charles II’s brother, the Duke of York. NY was very diverse. Later, the eastern part split and formed New Jersey.
The Founding of Pennsylvania • William Penn led religious dissenters known as the Quakers, or the Society of Friends. • Known for religious toleration and pacifism • Settled near the capital, Philadelphia and hoped the colony would be a “holy experiment”.
Conflict and War • The Beaver Wars • King Philip’s War • Bacon’s Rebellion • Culpepper’s Rebellion • Wars in the South • The Glorious Revolution in America • King William’s War
Pennsylvania • The Frame of Government- A framework of self-governance. They believed in religious freedom, civil liberties and fair treatment of natives.
King Philip’s War 1675- Started out between the settlers & Pokanokets but the Iroquois defeated the Pokanokets and declared the dominant tribe in the region.
The Iroquois • Wanted to maintain their role in the Dutch and English trading system. • Also wanted to continue to act as intermediaries between Natives and settlers. • Created the Covenant Chain, which created an alliance between the Iroquois Confederacy and New York. • Made Iroquois and New York as dominant tribe and colony in North America.
The Beaver Wars • The French, Dutch, English and different Native American tribes engaged in wars of rich beaver hunting grounds in the North. Each group wanted dominance in the region and rights to lands.
Bacon’s Rebellion • 1675-76- A violent conflict in backwoods VA in which Nathaniel Bacon led a series of attacks on Native Americans and then led a rebellion against Virginia’s government. • Is important because it showed the division between the frontier regions and the more established and civilized coastal areas. Baco demanded all removal of all Natives from VA….showed an increasing bravado & arrogance amongst settlers.
Culpepper’s Rebellion • Rebellion in North Carolina in which backcountry men overthrew the established government in 1677. English authorities eventually suppressed the rebellion. • Results- Colonial authorities expanded into Indian territory hoping to gain support of backcountry men. • Fears of disorder amongst indentured servants….turned to slave labor.
Conflict & War Glorious Revolution in America 1689 Wars in the South 1670s-1720s • Colonists in NC incite Creeks, Cherokees, and other tribes to attack and enslave mission Indians of Spanish Florida. • Colonists in MA, NY, and Maryland rose up against King James II’s harsh policies.
King william’s War • 1689- Began 75 years of competition and armed conflict between the British & French over control of North America. It also dragged in many Native tribes who were forced to choose alliances. Led to a tightening of control over North American colonists.