English Colonies in North America USI 1.5a, b, c, and d.
English colonies Understanding Questions Colonies in north America were established for religious and economic reasons Why did Europeans establish colonies in North America?
First ColoniesEconomic ventures • 1587- Roanoke Island colony established as an economic venture. Disappears before it can be resupplied. • 1607- Virginia Company establishes Jamestown First permanent English settlement in North America. Jamestown is an economic venture. Unsuccessful for several years until the cultivation of Tobacco make it an economic success. • Joint Stock company, charter, John Smith, “starving time”(winter 1609-10) 60 colonist left, Pocahontas, John Rolfe • 1619 House of Burgesses, first African slaves arrive • http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/images/s19.2.jpg
Virginia Colony Jamestown Fort Jamestown and Fort
Virginia Colony Disney ‘s John Smith Captain John Smith
Virginia Colony Disney’s John Rolfe and Pocahontas Modern Movie John Rolfe and Pocahontas
New England coloniesReligious colonies • Background info: King Henry VIII broke away from the Catholic Church and formed the Church of England in 1534. Dissenters were people who did not agree with the beliefs and practices of the C. of England. • 1620- Separatist formed Plymouth Colony. Commonly called Pilgrims, they came to America to seek religious freedom. Arrived on the Mayflower and signed the Mayflower Compact to set up a government for the colony here in America. • 1629- Massachusetts Bay Colony was formed and received a Royal Charter. MBC was settled by Puritans who came to America to seek religious freedom.
New England Colonies • 1630’s About 15,000 puritans migrate to the MBC, called the “Great Migration”. • 1636- Thomas Hooker- leaves MBC and leads followers to the Connecticut river valley where he forms Hartford and the colony of Connecticut. Adopted the “Fundamental Orders of Connecticut” the first written plan of Government in the colonies. • 1635- Roger Williams- founds Rhode Island and Providence Plantation and receives a charter in 1644 from the King. • 1638- John Wheelwright- founds New Hampshire 1679 receives a charter for the colony • Each new colony formed by dissenters from the MBC, toleration was not easy for Puritans. • The New England colonist cooperated with and fought with the American Indians for the land they lived on. The Indians were pushed off their land.
New England Colonies New England colonies map Plymouth Colony
New England Colonies Pilgrims New England Colonies
Middle ColoniesNew York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware • Proprietary colonies- colonies owned by a person or group of people • 1626 Dutch West India Company buys Manhattan Island and form New Amsterdam. 1664 England sends Navy to attack city, Peter Stuyvesant, the governor surrenders the colony. Renamed New York. • 1665New Jersey colony formed. Proprietors tried to attract colonist finally gave up and returned colony to Royal control. • 1680 William Penn- a Quaker- forms Pennsylvania as a refuge for Quakers in North America. Quakers believed in equality and toleration for everyone. • 1703 three lower counties of Penn. Formed into colony of Delaware.
Southern ColoniesMaryland, Virginia, North and South Carolina, and Georgia • 1607- Virginia- Jamestown settled 1624 King James revokes the colony’s charter and it becomes a royal colony. • 1634Maryland- Sir John Calvert settles Maryland as a safe place for Catholics to live. • 1660 – Carolina colony created as a proprietary colony. 1670 splits into North and South Carolina. • 1673- Georgia- George Oglethorpe- settled as a place for people in debtors prison. Opportunity for the people to start over in the New world.
SOL US 1.5b Understanding Questions Life in the colonies was shaped by the geographic features of the settlements. Economic specialization and interdependence existed among the colonies in the production of goods and services. How did climate, geographic features, and other available resources distinguish the three regions from each other? How did the people use the natural resources of their region earn a living? What are the benefits of specialization and trade? How did political and social life evolve in each region?
SOL USH 1.5c Understanding Question The colonies were made up of different groups of people whose lives varied greatly depending on their social position. How did the lives vary among different groups in Colonial America?
People in Colonial America Large land owners Virginia plantation house Lived mostly in the south Relied on indentured servants and/or enslaved African Americans Were educated in some cases Had rich social culture
People in Colonial America Farmers Colonial Farm Worked the land according to their region Relied on family members for labor
People in Colonial America Artisans Colonial artisans Worked as craftsmen in towns and on plantations Lived in small villages and cities Examples: blacksmiths, silversmiths, cabinet and furniture makers.
People in Colonial America Women Working in colonial home Worked as caretakers, house-workers, and homemakers. Were not allowed to vote Had few opportunities for getting an education
People in colonial America Free African Americans Free African American life in the colonies Were able to own land Had economic freedom and could work for pay and decide how to spend their money Were not allowed to vote
People in Colonial America Indentured Servants Splitting logs for rails Were men and women who did not have money for passage to the colonies and who agreed to work without pay for the person who paid their passage Were free at the end of their contract
People in Colonial America Enslaved African Americans Slave cabins on a large plantation Were captured in their native Africa and sold to slave traders; then were shipped to the colonies where they were sold into slavery Were owned as property for life without any rights Were often born into slavery(children of enslaved African Americans were born into slavery)