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Chapter 6 – Process Selection and Facility Layout. Process types and selection, automation, layout types, line balancing. Process Selection. Make or buy analysis (See pp.185-186) Q BEP = FC / (p – v) Process types (“type of operations”) Project Job [Batch] Repetitive Continuous flow

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chapter 6 process selection and facility layout

Chapter 6 – Process Selection and Facility Layout

Process types and selection, automation, layout types, line balancing

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley

process selection
Process Selection
  • Make or buy analysis (See pp.185-186)
    • QBEP = FC / (p – v)
  • Process types (“type of operations”)
    • Project
    • Job
    • [Batch]
    • Repetitive
    • Continuous flow
  • Volume, mix, flexibility considerations

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley

why automate
Why Automate?

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley

why automate4
Why Automate?
  • Reduce or eliminate labor cost??
  • Apply only to high volume operations??
  • Keep up with the other CEOs at the Rotary Club??
  • See the ads and say: “Wow, I’ve got to have one of those!”??

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley

why automate5
Why Automate?
  • Quality
    • Assures consistency, low variability
  • Rapid change
    • Shortens setups and changeovers
    • Reduces time to turnaround prototypes
  • Lower tooling cost
    • Eliminates specialized tools and dies
  • Reduced labor cost

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley

automation concepts 1
Automation Concepts - 1
  • Product design
    • CADD – computer aided drawing and drafting
    • CAD – computer aided design
  • Process design
    • CAPP – computer aided process planning
  • Machine control
    • NC – numerical control
    • CNC – computerized numerical control
    • DNC – direct numerical control
    • FMS – flexible manufacturing system
    • CAM – computer aided manufacturing

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley

automation concepts 2
Automation Concepts - 2
  • Production scheduling
    • CAS – computer aided scheduling
  • Service
    • CAI – computer aided instruction
  • Warehousing
    • AS/RS – automated storage and retrieval systems

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley

automation concepts 3
Automation Concepts - 3
  • Robotics
    • Heavy use in auto industry
    • Described in terms of number of axes of motion (up to 6)
      • Arm sweep
      • Shoulder swivel
      • Elbow extension
      • Pitch (wrist)
      • Yaw (wrist)
      • Roll (wrist)

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley

automation concepts 4
Automation Concepts – 4
  • CIM – computer integrated manufacturing
    • Integrates all the preceding concepts
    • MAP – manufacturing automation protocol
    • Major development in U.S. auto industry

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley

line balancing definitions
Line Balancing Definitions
  • Line balancing
    • Balance work among production lines, or
    • Balance tasks among workstations on 1 line
  • Cycle time
    • Materials Management: time from beginning of first operation until completion of last operation, or
    • Industrial Engineering: time between completion of 2 units of product, or
    • Line Balancing: Maximum time allowed at each workstation

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley

line balancing tools
Line Balancing Tools
  • Cycle time calculation
    • Output capacity ( OC = OT / CT )
      • Where OT = Operating Time per day, CT = Cycle Time
    • Cycle time ( CT = OT/D )
      • Where D = Desired output rate
  • Precedence diagrams
    • Similar to network diagram
  • Measures of effectiveness
    • Balance delay (% of idle time)
    • Efficiency

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley

layout types
Layout Types
  • Fixed-Position
  • Process or Functional
  • Product
  • Cellular
  • Mixed

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley

fixed position
Fixed-Position
  • Product is in a fixed position (e.g., airframe, ship, building, highway, etc.)
  • Resources (people, machines, material) come to the product
  • Requires complex scheduling of resources
  • High space requirements to accommodate resource movement
  • Usually associated with the Project environment

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley

process or functional
Process or Functional
  • Groups similar resources together by the function or process performed
  • Machine examples are: milling machines, lathes, routers, grinders
  • People examples are: Invoicing, Accounts Payable, Payroll Processing
  • Many crossed paths, high space requirements
  • Easy to supervise, train, etc.
  • Usually associated with the Job and sometimes the Batch environments

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley

product
Product
  • Resources are arranged to follow the flow of the product
  • Examples are: auto assembly, steel production, bottling, etc.
  • Often called production lines or assembly lines
  • May be straight line, U-shaped, snake
  • Provides for very little WIP storage
  • Usually associated with Repetitive and Continuous Flow environments

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley

cellular
Cellular
  • Resources (labor and equipment) arranged in small groups (cells)
  • Have responsibility for output, quality, maintenance, etc. for a grouping of tasks or parts
  • Referred to as “teams” in services sector
  • Teamwork essential
  • May be straight line or U-shaped; no WIP storage
  • Most recently developed layout
  • Usually associated with Repetitive environment

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley

mixed
Mixed
  • Two or more layout types in 1 facility
  • Examples
    • Manufacturing: burn-in or baking
    • Restaurants (kitchen is functional, buffet line is product, menu ordering is fixed-position)
  • More difficult to plan
  • More costly to equip
  • More troublesome to maintain

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley

u shaped advantages
U-Shaped Advantages
  • Staff flexibility and balance
  • Teamwork
  • Immediate rework
  • Accessibility
  • Work and tool distribution
  • Linking with other U-shaped layouts

SJSU Bus. 140 - David Bentley