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Strategies that Work Teaching for Understanding and Engagement. Workshop 9: Fluency & Automaticity. Debbie Draper, Julie Fullgrabe & Sue Eden . Agenda for the morning. 8:30 – Introduction / overview of workshops Definitions of fluency / automaticity Development of fluency Assessing fluency

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strategies that work teaching for understanding and engagement

Strategies that WorkTeaching for Understanding and Engagement

Workshop 9:

Fluency & Automaticity

Debbie Draper, Julie Fullgrabe & Sue Eden

agenda for the morning
Agenda for the morning

8:30 – Introduction / overview of workshops

Definitions of fluency / automaticity

Development of fluency

Assessing fluency

Teaching strategies

Handwriting and links to comprehension

slide3

Module 1: Effective Professional Learning and Comprehension

  • Module 2:Monitoring Comprehension
  • Module 3:Making Connections
  • Module 4: Maths & Comprehension
  • Module 5:Questioning Strategies
  • Module 6:Inferencing
  • Module 7: Visualising and Visual Texts
  • Module 8:Non-fiction reading strategies
  • Module 9:Fluency and Automaticity
  • Module 10:Vocabulary
slide4

Module 11: Maths and Comprehension

July 22nd (last Friday of holidays)

  • Module 12: Structures and Processes for Comprehension instruction

August 26th (Friday, T3, Wk 5)

  • Module 13: Using Data

September 2nd (Friday T3, Wk 6)

EXPO – 28th October

(Friday Term 4, Wk 2)

  • Module 14: Digital Comprehension

4th November (Friday T4, Wk 3)

slide5

Fluency

Phonics

Successful Readers

Vocabulary

Phonemic Awareness

Comprehension

slide6

Fluency

Phonics

Phonemic Awareness

Vocabulary

Comprehension

some definitions
Some definitions

Automaticity is a general term that means the ability to do things without occupying the mind with the low-level details required, allowing it to become an automatic response pattern or habit. It is usually the result of learning, repetition, and practice.

some definitions1
Some definitions

Fluency is reading (and writing) with no noticeable cognitive or mental effort. It is having mastered word recognition skills to the point that they do not require conscious attention.

slide11
There is a very, very tall coconut tree and there are 4 animals, 

a lion  a chimpanzee  a giraffe 

.....AND... 

a squirrel   

They decide to compete to see who is the fastest to get a banana from  the top of the tree.Who do you guess will win? Your answer will reflect your personality. So think carefully . . .           Try and answer within 30 seconds.        

The Banana Test

slide12
If your answer is:

Lion = you're dull

Chimpanzee = you're dense

Giraffe = you're a complete moron

Squirrel = you're hopeless

A COCONUT TREE DOESN'T HAVE BANANAS. 

what is fluency
What Is Fluency?

Speed + Accuracy = Fluency

Reading quickly and in a meaningful way (prosody)

Decoding and comprehending simultaneously

Freedom from word identification problems

Fluency is derived from the Latin word fluens which means “to flow”

Smooth and effortless reading

some definitions2
Some definitions

Automaticity is defined as fast, accurate and effortless word identification at the single word level. The speed and accuracy at which single words are identified is the best predictor of comprehension.

Fluency, on the other hand, involves not only automatic word identification but also the application of appropriate prosodic features (rhythm, intonation, and phrasing) at the phrase, sentence, and text levels.

slide16

Levels

of

Fluency

Texts

Passages

Paragraphs

Phrases

Words

Letters

Sounds

Rapid Automatic Naming

slide18

Texts

Phrases

Words

Letters

Sounds

Rapid Automatic Naming

slide20

Texts

Phrases

Words

Letters

Sounds

Rapid Automatic Naming

slide21

d

k

f

h

b

slide23

Texts

Phrases

Words

Letters

Sounds

Rapid Automatic Naming

word recognition
Word Recognition

High Frequency Words

Sight Words

Onset-rimes (word sorts, drills)

Prefix / Suffix

Syllables

Root words & word families – linked to etymological strategies

Word Walls – rapid reading

syllables
Syllables

Closed – syllables that end in a consonant e.g. rabbit

Open – syllables that end in a vowel e.g. tiger

Vowel silent – usually long vowel sounds e.g. compete

Vowel digraphs– ai, ay, ea etc e.g. boat

R-controlled – when a vowel is followed by “r”, the letter “r” affects the sound of the word e.g. bird, turtle

Consonant + “le” – the consonant and the “le” form the final syllable e.g. table, little

slide30

Texts

Phrases

Words

Letters

Sounds

Rapid Automatic Naming

slide33

Texts

Phrases

Words

Letters

Sounds

Rapid Automatic Naming

slide34

…it has been proven beyond any shade of doubt that skilful readers process virtually each and every word and letter of text as they read. This is extremely counter-intuitive. For sure, skilful readers neither look nor feel as if that’s what they do. But that’s because they do it so quickly and effortlessly. Almost automatically; with almost no conscious attention whatsoever, skilful readers recognise words by drawing on deep and ready knowledge of spellings and their connections to speech and meaning.

In fact, the automaticity with which skilful readers recognise words is the key to the whole system…The reader’s attention can be focused on the meaning and message of a text only to the extent that it’s free from fussing with the words and letters.

intonation punctuation
Intonation & Punctuation

ABC? DE. FGH! I? JKL. MN? OPQ! RST! UV? WX. YZ! 123. 4! 567? 89. 10!

what can fluent readers do
What can fluent readers do?

Read every letter in every word.

Read almost every word.

Perceive letters in chunks; recognise high frequency letter combinations.

Apply syllabication strategies to divide lengthy words with little conscious analysis.

Use punctuation correctly.

what can fluent readers do1
What can fluent readers do?

Read fluently with adequate speed, phrasing, intonation; their reading sounds like they’re speaking.

Apply their knowledge of orthography to help identify unknown words they encounter.

Activate, apply their extensive vocabulary.

what can fluent readers do2
What can fluent readers do?

Use their knowledge about the structure of written text to anticipate words as they read.

Rely little on contextual information because word recognition is rapid, automatic and efficient.

Construct meaning as they read.

prosody matrix or a six dimension fluency scale
Prosody Matrixor A Six Dimension Fluency Scale

Phrasing

Smoothness

Pace

Work in pairs

Read Article

Assess

Swap Roles

slide42

Modelled:

Read a piece of text to students.

Model fluent and dysfluent reading.

Read with speed but no expression etc.

Talk about what is happening with students.

slide44

Shared:

Read text fluently.

Ask students to read with you.

Practise and provide feedback.

Use a fluent reader as a model.

guided
Guided:

Model reading aloud in guided reading

Use strategies such as paired reading (fluent reader with less fluent reader)

independent
Independent:

Provide opportunities for

Repeated readings

Choral Reading

Echo Reading

Paired Reading

Readers’ Theatre

Timed trials with charting

why assess fluency
Why assess fluency?

Oral reading fluency measures are valid: have been found to predict results on high stakes reading comprehension tests

Benchmarks for satisfactory reading rates are the same regardless of reading programme

Benchmarks help teachers identify who is at risk for below year level performance

assessments
Assessments

DIBELS: Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills Good and Kaminski, Univ. of Oregon

https://dibels.uoregon.edu/measures/materials_signup.php

Test of Word Reading EfficiencyTorgesen, Pro-Ed

Gray Oral Reading Test IV

dibels subtests
DIBELS subtests

Letter naming

Initial sound fluency

Phoneme segmentation

Nonsense word fluency

Oral reading fluency

Word use fluency

Oral retelling

creating a plan for fluency instruction and practice
Creating a plan for fluency instruction and practice

Assess students

Identify children at risk

Identify specific needs and group children for instruction (i.e. accuracy, automaticity at word level, or rate fluency in connected text)

Provide explicit instruction in automaticity and fluency as well as opportunities for practice.

Monitor progress

effective fluency building instruction rests on three critical decisions
Effective fluency building instruction rests on three critical decisions:
  • Selecting appropriate instructional tasks (i.e., letter sounds students can produce accurately but not fluently).
  • Scheduling sufficient practice (multiple opportunities per day).
  • Systematically increasing the rate of response.
australian curriculum english1
Australian Curriculum – English

References to Handwriting

fluency
Fluency

handwriting

explicit instruction
Explicit Instruction

Name

Sound

Formation

what is quality
What is quality?

Think about quality hotels.

What makes them five star?

12 rules for good cursive handwriting
12 Rules for Good Cursive Handwriting
  • Many people do not know that 'Cursive' just means 'Joined-up'. It is not the name of any particular style.
  • These rules apply to all Western handwriting regardless of the so-called copybook style.

by Christopher Jarman M Ed, Dip Ed, Cert Ed.

7 ascenders and descenders are no more than twice the height of small letters preferably less
7. Ascenders and descenders are no more than twice the height of small letters, preferably less.
agenda for the morning1
Agenda for the morning

8:30 – Introduction / overview of workshops

Definitions of fluency / automaticity

Development of fluency

Assessing fluency

Teaching strategies

Handwriting and links to comprehension

feedback
Feedback
  • https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/ComprehensionFeedback
  • https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/juliefullgrabe
  • https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/debbiedraper