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  1. Faculty of Arts and Social SciencesSchool of EducationEDST 5110Educational Leadership for Gifted StudentsSummer School Module 3, 19 January 2012 Presenter: Katherine Hoekman, BA(Hons) DipEd CertGiftedEd MEd PhD FACE

  2. Module 3: Whole School Program for Gifted Students The smorgasbord of programming options explored will include enrichment accelerative, grouping and counseling options. This module will focus on the development of a systematic approach to designing, implementing and supporting an exemplary school wide gifted education program. Strategies to adapt and research based recommendations and engender school-wide ownership will be demonstrated and applied.

  3. Practising Gifted Education: The Content (What and Why) of Professional Development • 10.00 – 11.30 Session 1: Defensible Programs and Provisions for G&T • 11.45 – 1.00 Session 2: Fostering School-wide Differentiation • 2.00- 3.30 Session 3: Case Study of Research-based Decision Making 3.45 – 5.00 Session 4: Strategic Leadership for School Reform

  4. Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians (2008) Goal 1: Australian Schooling promotes equity and excellence. Goal 2: AllYoung Australians becomes successful learners; confident and creative individuals; and active and informed citizens.

  5. Achievement of Goals is… ‘…a collective responsibility of governments, school sectors and individual schools, as well as parents and carers, young Australians, families, other educational and training providers, business and the broader community’.

  6. Meeting the Needs of Intellectually Talented Children (Benbow, 1998) • If experience, research, and common sense teach nothing else, they confirm the truism that people learn at different rates, and in different ways with different subjects. (p.7) • Research confirms common sense. Some students take three to six times longer than others to learn the same thing. (p.15) (Prisoners of Time, NECTL, 1994)

  7. ‘Prisoners of Time’ (Benbow, 1998) • Under today’s practices, high-ability students are forced to spend more time than they need on curriculum developed for students of moderate ability, many become bored, unmotivated, and frustrated. They become prisoner’s of time. (p.15) (Prisoners of Time, NECTL, 1994)

  8. School Etiologies that Contribute to Underachievement • Inflexible classrooms • [Overly] competitive classrooms • Negative expectations • Unrewarding curriculum • Lack of respect for the individual child Whitmore (1980) in Davis and Rimm (1989) Education of the Gifted and Talented p. 319)

  9. Effective Programs for Students of High Ability (Berger,1991) A program “is part of the mainstream education and doesn’t rise and fall with public opinions” (Morgan, Tennant & Gold, 1980, p.2). It is a comprehensive, sequential system for educating students with identifiable needs (The Association for the Gifted, 1989).

  10. Provisions(Tannenbaum, 1983) • Are fragmentary learning experiences • Are simplistic rather than complex in form • Lack direction • Lack scope and sequence • Collapse if the teacher who initiates them moves on • Are not built in to the school’s curriculum plan • Are seen as expendable • Are ‘the first thing to go’ under budgetary pressures • Contain little evaluation

  11. Programs vs Provisions • Tannenbaum (1983) asserts that: • “Provisions are educational electives that are never taken as seriously as imperatives, are rarely articulated from one grade level to the next, and are always vulnerable to extinction” (p.423).

  12. Programs (Tannenbaum, 1983) • Are educational imperatives, an integral and essential part of the school curriculum. • Have permanence. • Are comprehensive, sequential curriculum plans developed by a curriculum committee rather than by an individual. • Are codified in the school records. • Are supported solidly by school budgets. • May be revised but will not be revoked. • Have a strong evaluative component.

  13. Planned Developmental Peer Groups (Foster, 1983) Ability grouping is placing students of high intellectual potential together for the purpose of addressing: • Academic achievement • Self-concept • Attitude toward subject matter and school

  14. Tracking vs Ability Grouping Tracking: Gifted students stay together for instruction in all subject areas without regard for their ability or achievement levels in the various subject areas. Ability Grouping: Gifted students stay together for instruction in the subject areas in which they have demonstrated high ability or achievement.

  15. The Continuum of Services(Silverman, 1993) Special School Special Classroom Part-Time Special Class Resource Room Supplementary Tutoring Support Services for Teacher Regular Classroom Placement

  16. Smorgasbord of Grouping Options • Special Schools • Full-time self-contained classes • Accelerated cohort • Subject-specific groupings • Pull-out (withdrawal) programs • Cluster-grouping (intra-school) • Cluster-grouping (inter-school) • University-based programs • Gifted Children’s Association programs • The heterogeneous (mixed-ability) classroom

  17. Developmentally Appropriate Placement: Acceleration(Sayler,1996) • A diversified collection of administrative procedures • Aimed at enriching the classroom experiences of gifted and talented children • Whose specific characteristic is a more rapid or early progress through the grades of the school system

  18. Acceleration Options • Grade Skipping • Grade Compacting • Mid-grade Promoting • Early entry - infants, primary, secondary, tertiary • By Subject/ By Grade • Additional subjects • -Double HSC • -With double range • [Some]Distinction Courses [until 2010]

  19. Opportunity for Continuous Progress(VanTassel-Baska, 1992, p.71) Each learner is entitled to experience learning at a level of challenge, defined as task difficulty level slightly above skill mastery. For gifted learners, this implies the opportunity for continuous progress through the basic curriculum based on demonstrated mastery of prior material.

  20. Asynchronous Development (Silverman, 1993) Giftedness is Asynchronous Development in which advanced cognitive abilities and heightened intensity combine to create inner experiences and awareness that are qualitatively different from the norm. This asynchrony increases with higher intellectual capacity. The uniqueness of the gifted renders them particularly vulnerable and requires modifications in parenting, teaching and counselling in order for them to develop optimally.The Columbus Group, 1991

  21. Types of Enrichment (Stanley, 1979) • Busy work: Simply more of the same work as the other students are doing. “You’ve finished your worksheet, Jane? Here’s another”. • Irrelevant academic enrichment: Enrichment which does not take into consideration the specific gifts or talents of the students for which it is planned.

  22. Types of Enrichment (Stanley, 1979) • Cultural enrichment: This still ignores the students’ gifts or talents but at least offers additional cultural gains, e.g. studying music or art, or learning a second language. • Relevant enrichment: Enrichment which is deliberately designed to respond to the specific gifts or talents possessed or displayed by the student.

  23. Passow’s (1988) Test of Appropriate Curriculum • Would all children want to be involved in such learning experiences? • Could allchildren participate in such learning experiences? • Shouldall children be expected to succeed in such learning experiences? It is important not to confuse what is good whole-school enrichment with that which is only appropriate for gifted students.

  24. Differentiation (Keirouz, 1993) Although high-ability students certainly need to learn and demonstrate mastery of the basic skills, differentiated curriculum really begins where the regular curriculum leaves off.

  25. Criteria for Choosing a Program Format (Ref: J. Spoor, 1997) The programmatic option chosen MUST: • Meet the students’ needs • Be a workable solution with regard to timetable constraints • Be appropriate scale in terms of manageable scope • Not be a part-time solution to a full-time problem

  26. Criteria for Choosing a Program Format (cont.) (Ref: J. Spoor, 1997) • Work within the present school resources • Satisfy the Board of Studies requirements • Work with existing staff • Be regarded as a long term, institutionalised program • Agree with the mission statement of the school

  27. The Five Elements which Characterize Successful Programs for the Gifted • Content acceleration to the level of the student’s abilities • Thoughtfully planned, relevant enrichment • Guidance in selecting courses and directions • Special instruction with the opportunity to work closely with other gifted young people • The opportunity to work with mentors who have high level expertise in the student’s area of giftedness. (VanTassel-Baska, 1985)

  28. 3 Essential Conditions to Avoid Underachievement (Feldhusen, 1991) • Feldhusen (1991) suggests that three conditions are essential to avoid underachievement and actively promote the development of talent among gifted youth: “substantial time working with other gifted youth, advanced or accelerated curriculum, and teaching methods appropriate to their level of ability… • It is only through challenge and success in learning that gifted students experience intellectual and motivational growth”.

  29. Programming for Talent Development (Feldhusen, Hoover and Sayler) • Assess the needs of gifted and talented students • Assess the existing provisions • Identify the gaps between the needs of gifted students and existing whole school enrichment • Establish the program options

  30. Factors the Contribute to the failure of Change Efforts Task The Challenges of School Change…

  31. Practising Gifted Education: The Content (What and Why) of Professional Development • 10.00 – 11.30 Session 1: Defensible Programs and Provisions for G&T • 11.45 – 1.00 Session 2: Fostering School-wide Differentiation • 2.00- 3.30 Session 3: Case Study of Research-based Decision Making 3.45 – 5.00 Session 4: Strategic Leadership for School Reform

  32. The ‘why’ of leadership (Tomlinson et al, 2008) A vision is not a speech or presentation…it is the oxygen that permeates and enlivens the process at every stage of the journey. Viable schools require technical or managerial leadership, human resources leadership, and pedagogical leadership…schools also require symbolic leadership and cultural leadership to provide a vision, nurture it, and lead others to embrace and enact it. The leader’s passion for the vision becomes a source of authority (Sergiovanni, 1999).

  33. Responsibilities of Leaders (Marzano, 2005) Being knowledgeable and providing guidance about how the initiative will affect curriculum, instruction and assessment Being the driving force behind the initiative and fostering trust that outcomes will be important and positive if the group works hard and implements the initiative appropriately. Being knowledgeable about the research and theory behind the initiative and guiding the group in developing an understanding of that knowledge base.

  34. Challenging the status quo and moving forward on the innovation and the change process Being both directive and flexible about the change as the evolving situation warrants Operating in a manner consistent with one’s ideals and beliefs relative to the innovation

  35. ‘Differentiated’not just ‘Different’(Ellis) Programs • Acceleration • Subject acceleration • Grade-skipping • Grouping • Withdrawal • Special classes • Special schools • Cluster groups …without appropriate curriculum remain administrative placement procedures only Curriculum (Differentiated not just ‘different’) • Based on knowledge of individual needs • Pre-planned scope and sequence • Diagnostic/Prescriptive • Compacting and accelerated pace - • content, process, product modifications

  36. Differentiation (Keirouz, 1993) Although high-ability students certainly need to learn and demonstrate mastery of the basic skills, differentiated curriculum really begins where the regular curriculum leaves off.

  37. Comprehensive Programming • Provisions that address multiple kinds and degrees of ability. • Articulation between grade levels and schools. • Opportunities for students to progress as they achieve mastery • A sequential curriculum, grades K-12, that provides a balance of acceleration and enrichment

  38. Scope and Sequence (Passow, 1988) Pre-planning is meant to ensure that there will be continuity, integrity, and articulation to learning experiences where those qualitative characteristics are important, and to ensure the availability of the resources needed to fully engage in appropriate learning opportunities. (p.13)

  39. Curricular Articulation • Across gradelevels (eg. K-3, 4-6, 7-8, and 9-12) • Within content areas (eg. Reading K-12) • Within higher level thinking (eg. Ever increasing levels of complexity of evaluation level tasks) • Across product development (eg. What makes a difference in the level of difficulty of the task demanded)

  40. Underlying Assumptions • Different students are at different points within and across learning areas • Real learning only occurs when the level of mastery is slightly above the learner’s mastery level • Teaching must focus on assessing the level of the learner in specific curriculum sequences and facilitating instruction above it

  41. Importance of Optimal Experiences Memories of peak moments motivate students to keep improving in hopes of achieving the same intensity of experience again… (Csikszentmihalyi, Rathunde and Whalen, 1997)

  42. Optimal Challenge As Csikszentmihalyi (1996) observes, “The teacher has the difficult task of finding the right balance between the challenges he or she gives the student and the student’s skill, so that the enjoyment and the desire to learn more result” (p.174)

  43. Practice and Expert Performance Three learning phases: • Exposure • Extension • Development of expertise Ericsson et al 1993: Kaplan 1986

  44. A student’s true ability won’t be apparent if… • Whole class teaching is used • Same lesson content/expectations for all • Fail to pretest • Fail to exempt students if required content or skills is already mastered • Expect all students to progress at the same rate • Tasks/questions restricted to lower cognitive levels • Self esteem issues not considered

  45. Standardised, criterion-based measures are insufficient way to judge growth and learning (JVTB, 2006) Value-added assessment analyses indicate that the top 20%of students may successfully pass state mandated, criterion-based assessments but show a decline in learning over time when their own pre-post measures are compared (Sanders & Horn, 1998). More sophisticated analyses such as value0added assessment in addition to authentic learning measures, including portefolios and performance-based assessments are needed to paint a truer picture of what students know and are able to do (Callahan, 2005).

  46. Appropriate Curriculum for the Talented Learner (VanTassel-Baska, 1998) • The level of the curriculum must be sufficiently advanced to interest and challenge the gifted learner. • The pace at which the curriculum is offered must be adjusted to accommodate both faster and slower rates, depending on the nature of the challenge. • The complexity of the curriculum should reflect the capacity of the gifted learner to engage in simultaneous rather than linear processing of ideas. • The depth of the curriculum should allow gifted learners to continue exploring an area of special interest to the level of an expert.

  47. Differentiation (Keirouz, 1993) • Deleting already-mastered material from existing curriculum • Adding new content, process, or product expectations to existing curriculum • Extending existing curriculum to provide enrichment activities • Providing course work for able students at an earlier age than usual • Writing new units or courses that meet the needs of gifted students.