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Dr. Cynthia Rosenzweig NASA Goddard Institute of Space Studies Center for Climate Systems Research March 15, 2011 PowerPoint Presentation
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Adaptation Activities for the Protection of Critical Infrastructure. U.S. General Services Administration Interagency Resources Management Conference 2011: Celebrating 50 Years of Performance Leadership. Dr. Cynthia Rosenzweig NASA Goddard Institute of Space Studies

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slide1

Adaptation Activities for the Protection of Critical Infrastructure

U.S. General Services Administration

Interagency Resources Management Conference 2011:

Celebrating 50 Years of Performance Leadership

Dr. Cynthia Rosenzweig

NASA Goddard Institute of Space Studies

Center for Climate Systems Research

March 15, 2011

slide2

Climate Change Responses

  • Mitigation involves actions that decrease the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs). This can be done by reducing GHG emissions and by enhancing the storage of carbon on the earth.
  • Adaptation involves actions that reduce the effects of climate change or enhance the benefits.
  • Mitigation & adaptation can be interactive.
  • Both mitigating and adapting to changing climate conditions are part of sustainability.
new york city climate change adaptation process
New York City Climate Change Adaptation Process

High-Level

Buy-In

Mayor or City Official

Critical Infrastructure

Coordinating Role

City-wide Sustainability Office

  • Stakeholders
  • City Agencies
  • Regional Authorities
  • Private Corporations
  • Expert Knowledge Providers
  • University scholars and private sector experts
  • Social, biological, and physical scientists
  • Legal and insurance experts
  • Risk management professionals

E

T

Stakeholder Task Force

Expert Panel

P

W

W

C

Climate Risk Information

Adaptation Assessment Guidelines

Climate Protection Levels

  • Integration across Sector-specific Working Groups
  • Energy (E) - Transportation (T)
  • Policy (P) - Water & Waste (WW)
  • - Communications (C)

Source: NPCC, 2010

adaptation assessment
Adaptation Assessment
  • Climate scenarios developed for New York City were used to identify impacts on infrastructure and start the adaptation assessment process
  • Climate information helped guide stakeholders
    • Inventory of At-risk Infrastructure
    • Risk Assessment Matrix
    • Strategy Prioritization Framework

Source: NPCC, 2010

Source: NPCC, 2010

framing adaptation
Framing Adaptation
  • Reduce the level of physical, social, or economic impact of climate change and variability
  • Take advantage of new opportunities emerging from climate change

Type

  • Management/operations
  • Infrastructure – physical components of each sector
  • Policy

Administrative Group

  • Private vs. public organizations
  • Local/municipal, county, state, national
  • Level of Effort
  • Incremental action
  • Large-scale shifts

Timing

  • Short term <5 yrs; medium term 5-15 yrs; long term >15 years
  • Abrupt Changes - tipping points/policy triggers

Scale

  • Wide-spread, clustered, isolated/unique
adaptation decisions
Adaptation Decisions
  • Actions
    • Enhance existing programs
    • Moving pumps at the Rockaway Wastewater Treatment Plant to 14 feet above sea level from 25 feet below
  • Planning
    • NYC DEP Climate Change Integrated Modeling Project (CCIMP) analyzing climate impacts on NYC water supply
    • NYC DEP RFP to study impacts of rising sea level on Wastewater Pollution Control Plants (WPCP), tide gates and other structures
    • Standards and Regulations
    • NPCC Recommendation to change 1/100 year floodplain standards
  • Urban Design – MOMA
  • New York State Climate Action Plan
    • Effective mitigation strategies will depend on taking climate change into account
    • Mitigation strategies will affect adaptation strategies, and vice versa with respect to effectiveness, economic efficiency, and equity
    • Potential adaptation strategies provide entry points for institutional and public response to climate change and climate change mitigation

Ashokan Reservoir, a component of the New York City Water Supply System

WPCP in Bronx, New York

mitigation and adaptation
Mitigation and Adaptation
  • >75% NYC’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions originate from buildings (PlaNYC 2010 report)
  • By 2030, 85% of GHG emissions will come from existing buildings
  • Focus on retrofitting existing buildings to reduce GHG emissions
  • Approach must be multi-dimensional (e.g., reduce energy and water usage, install solar and green roofs, etc.)
  • City Council Regulation

In Cities Retrofit of Existing Buildings is Key to Sustainability

greening giss
Greening GISS
  • Near-term Sustainability Goals
  • Conduct energy audit
  • Establish metering and monitoring system to assess load shifting
  • Install green roof

NASA-GISS building

GSA leases from Columbia University

  • Long-term Sustainability Goals
  • Achieve near net-zero energy use
  • Obtain LEED Existing Building certification
gsa green roof report
GSAGreen Roof Report
  • Evaluate measurable benefits and challenges associated with the use of green roofs in GSA's owned and leased inventory
    • Practical, environmental, and aesthetic benefits of green roofs, including the reduction of storm water runoff
    • Analysis of building life-cycle cost, return on investment, and energy savings
    • Sustainable design features might be important to justify the costs associated with green roofs
  • Currently, there are 36 green roofs on GSA buildings in eastern USA (GSA Green Roof Tracker)
  • Washington D.C. 22 green roofs
  • New York City 1 green roof
  • Stuart Gaffin, GISS

– Report coauthor

  • Report expected in 2011
slide11

Conclusions

  • Adaptation to changing climate conditions is part of sustainability.
  • Adaptation is a risk management process.
    • Leadership from the top is essential!
  • There are many types of adaptation: operations, management, infrastructure, and policy.
  • There are synergies between energy efficiency and adaptation.