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Nationalist, Revolutions Sweep the West

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  1. Nationalist, Revolutions Sweep the West Chapter 8 Pages 244 to 271 in text

  2. Latin American Peoples Win Independence Section 1

  3. Colonial Society Divided • Latin American colonial society – _____________ dictated people’s place in _____________& _______________ • Divisions… • 1st – ____________________; born in Spain, only they could hold high office • 2nd – ____________________; Spaniards born in Latin America, couldn’t hold high-level political office, could rise as officers in army • Both Peninsulares & Creoles controlled _________, _________, & ___________ • 3rd – _______________; people of mixed European & Indian ancestry • 4th – _______________; people of mixed European & African ancestry • 5th – enslaved ________________ & _____________________

  4. Revolutions in the Americas • Success of the ________________& _______________ Revolutions encouraged others to gain their freedom from _________________ masters • Saint Domingue – • ___________________ colony • __________ of the western side of __________________ • Aug. 1791 – 100,000 _____________________________ revolted & followed their leader ___________________________________ • Toussaint then took over island in 1801 & freed all of the Africans

  5. Jan. 1802 – French arrived to remove _____________ from power • Toussaint agreed to end revolt if they ________________________ • Toussaint was eventually ___________________, sent to prison in the ____________________ • he died there in April 1803 • Jan. 1, 1804 – ________________________________declared that the island was an independent country • He called the country ____________which means “_________________________” • It was the 1st Latin Am. territory to _______________ itself

  6. Creoles Lead Independence • Least _________________ of those born in Latin Am. & the best __________________ • 1810 – rebellion broke out in several parts of Latin Am. • ________________________ (Venezuelan) & __________________________(Argentinian) were two brilliant Creole generals • Bolivar’s Victory – • 1811- ___________________ declares independence from ________ • 1819 – he led soldiers over ____________ & took the Spanish by surprise • 1821 – Venezuela was finally _________________________

  7. San Martin Leads Liberation Forces – • 1816 – _____________________ declares independence from Spain, but Spanish forces were nearby in _____________ & ______________ • 1817 – San Martin joined ______________________ in Chile & finally freed Chile from Spain • 1822 – San Martin met up with Bolivar to discuss driving Spanish out of _______________. Both agreed that San Martin would take over Bolivar’s soldiers • 1824 – Spain was defeated at the Battle of ______________in ________ • This was the last major battle of the war for independence • Spanish colonies in Latin Am. won their freedom * The lands now known as Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, & Ecuador were united into one country known as “___________________________”

  8. Mexico Ends Spanish Rule • ________________ & ________________ played large role in revolutionary movements in Mexico • Padre __________________________ - • 1810 – In the village of ________________, Hidalgo gathered the peasants in the church and called for rebellion against the Spanish • That day is known as _______________________________(the cry of Dolores) • Next Day - ______________ men began a march towards ____________________ • 1811 – Hidalgo & his men were _____________________by the Spanish army & the ______________________

  9. Padre ____________________________– • Led revolution for _________ years • 1815 – defeated by a Creole officer, ____________________________ • 1820 – Revolution in Spain put a ________________ group in power • Mexico’s Creoles feared loss of _________________ in colony & began to support __________________ fight for independence from Spain • 1821 – _____________________________ proclaimed independence for Mexico. He then declared himself ______________ over _______________________ & ____________________ • 1823 – Iturbide was ___________________________ * Lands known today as Nicaragua, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, & Costa Rica took the name of the _____________________________

  10. Brazil’s Royal Liberator • 1807 – Prince John (King __________________) & the royal family of Portugal left their homeland for ______________ when __________________________ & the French troops invaded • ____________________________became the capital & the royal family ran their empire from there for ___________ years • 1815 – Napoleon is defeated • 1821 - King John & royal family returned to Portugal with the exception of _________________________ who stayed in Brazil

  11. 1822 – 8,000 Brazilians signed a _________________________ demanding their independence • On Sept. 7, 1822 Prince Dom Pedro __________________ to petition & officially declared Brazil as an _____________________________ • Independence came without any __________________ upheavals or widespread ________________________

  12. Europe Faces Revolutions Section 2

  13. Clash of Philosophies • First half of 1800’s there were _____ schools of ___________ thought that struggled for supremacy in Europe • ______________________ – wealthy property owners & nobility. Argued for protecting traditional ______________________ • ________________ – middle-class business leaders & merchants. Wanted more power given to elected parliaments, but only ________________ & _______________________ could vote • ___________________ – favored drastic changes to extend democracy to all people. Believed gov’t should practice ideals of _________________________ – liberty, equality, & brotherhood.

  14. Nationalism Develops • New movement that stated people’s greatest loyalty should not be to a ______________ or an _________________, but to a nation of people who share a common _________________ & _____________ • When a nation had its own independent gov’t it became a ______________________________ • Defends nation’s territory & ___________________________ • Represents the nation to the rest of the world • 1815 – only ______________, ________________, & ____________

  15. Greeks Gain Independence • Had been a part of the ___________________________ • 1821 – demanded independence & rebelled against the __________ • People around the world supported the ____________ fight for freedom • 1827 – _______________, French, & _______________ combined their fleets & destroyed the Ottomans at the Battle of ______________________ • 1830 – the three nations signed a treaty granting the kingdom of ________________ their freedom

  16. 1830s Uprisings Crushed • Liberals & Nationalist throughout Europe were revolting against _________________________ governments • _____________ – Nationalist riots broke out against the Dutch rule in __________________ & declared their independence • ____________________– Nationalist wanted entire peninsula untied. • States were either independent, controlled by Austria, or controlled by the Pope • Austrian troops sent in to restore order in Italy • ____________________– Revolt in Warsaw against Russian rule • Took Russian army almost an entire year to stop revolt

  17. Radicals Change France • 1830 – France’s King ____________________ tried to restore _____________________ , which led to riots, & he had to flee to _____________________________ • _________________________ took over & known for his liberal beliefs • 1848 – Philippe was ______________________ • the people established another ___________________with 2 sides that couldn’t agree • ______________ battles in the streets & people turned away from radicals • Moderate constitution was drawn up – parliament & strong ___________________ to be _________________ by the people

  18. Dec. 1848 – _________________ Napoleon (______________ of Napoleon Bonaparte) won the presidential election • 1852 – he took the title of __________________________ • Built ____________________ • Encouraged industrialization • Promoted ___________________________ programs • Unemployment decreased & country prospered

  19. Reform in Russia • By 1820’s many _________________ believed ___________ must end b/c it was ____________________ wrong • A member of the lowest feudal class, attached to the land owned by a lord and required to perform labor in return for certain legal or customary rights • _____________ didn’t want to free the serfs b/c it would anger the ____________________ who the Czars depended on to stay in power • 1856 – ____________________ wanted Russia to be more modern & wanted to bring about social change

  20. 1861 – he freed the serfs, but ________________ communities got ½ the ___________ & the _____________ kept the other ½ . • The ______________ paid the nobles for their land • Peasant communities had ___________ years to pay back the gov’t for the land they received. • 1881 – terrorists ____________________ Alexander II & ______________________ took over & encouraged industrial development to expand Russia’s power

  21. Nationalism Section 3

  22. A Force for Unity or Disunity • ___________________________… • Mergers of politically divided but culturally similar lands • 19th century Germany & Italy • ______________________________… • Culturally distinct group resist being added to a state or tries to break away • Greeks in Ottoman Empire • French-speaking Canadians • _______________________________… • Culturally distinct groups form into a new state by accepting a single culture • The United States & Turkey

  23. Break Up of Austrian Empire • _________________________ consisted of… • Slovenes, ___________________, Germans, Czechs, ______________, Croats, ______________, Serbs, & ____________________ • 1866 – _____________ defeated Austria in _______________________ War • Gained North German Confederation & _______ small German political units • Emperor _________________ of Austria split empire in ______ declaring Austria & Hungary were now independent states & he was ruler of both • Now known as Austria-Hungary or Austro-Hungarian Empire • After ___________ – Austria-Hungary broke up into several nation-states

  24. Russian Empire Crumbles • Russian empire consisted of… • Russians, ________________, Poles, Lithuanians, _____________, Estonians, ____________, Jews, Romanians, _______________, Armenians, Turks, & others • All had their own culture • _____________________– forced Russian culture on all ethnic groups in empire • Helped maintain _______________ over empire • Strengthened ________________ nationalist feelings • Helped to ______________Russia • Last Romanov Czar (_____________________) gave up power in 1917 due to ______________ and the communist revolution

  25. Ottoman Empire Weakens • Turks ruled over Greeks, ___________, Arabs, Bulgarians, & ____________________ • 1856 – granted ____________citizenship to all people under their control • Forced by England & France • ________________ Turks VERY angry & wanted no change to empire • In response, Ottomans _________________ & deported ___________________ from 1894-1896 and again in 1915 • Ottoman Empire broke up after _____________

  26. Cavour Leads Italian Unification • Kingdom of ____________________________ – largest & most powerful of all ____________ states. Adopted ______________ constitution in 1848 • 1852 – _________________________ (king of Sardinia) made Count Camillo di Cavour the Prime Minister • 1858 – with the help of Napoleon III ______________ was able to take over all of ______________ Italy with the exception of _____________ by winning a war against Austria

  27. Garibaldi Brings Unity • 1860 – _______________________ led a small army of Italian nationalist and captured ________________ • Both Garibaldi & his followers wore __________________________, they became known as the _____________________ • Eventually he agreed to ______________ the ________________ areas he had conquered with the Kingdom of __________________________________________ • _________________________________ would rule over all of Italy

  28. 1866 – Austrian province of _____________________, included Venice, became a part of ___________________ • 1870 - last part of Italy was finally taken over, the _________________________________ • _______________ became the capital of the United Kingdom of Italy • ________________ continued to govern ________________ City

  29. Bismarck Unites Germany • 1815 – _______ German states form the German Confederation • ___________________ had mainly a ________________ population & had a very powerful _____________ in central Europe • 1848 – __________ constitution written in ______________ • 1861 – _________________ takes throne & parliament refused him ____________ to strengthen army • The ______________ – Prussia’s wealthy landowners supported the ________________

  30. 1862 - Wilhelm I chose _________________________ as his Prime Minister • _________________________ Junker • Declared that he would rule without consent of __________________ & without a legal budget (direct violation of constitution) • Master __________________________ • Realpolitik “the politics of _________________” – tough power politics with no room for _____________________ • 1864 – Prussia & Austria formed an alliance, then went to war with _________________ & won the provinces of ____________________ & _____________________ • __________________ governed Schleswig • __________________ governed Hoilstein

  31. Seven Weeks’ War • 1866 – Austria declared war on __________________ after border conflicts over Schleswig & Holstein • ______________________ won • Austria lost _______________ which was given to Italy • Prussia took control of ____________________________ • 1867 – remaining states of the north joined the North German Confederation, Prussia dominated this area

  32. Franco-Prussian War • 1867 – a few southern (______________) German states were independent of ________________ control • July 1870 – ________________ declared war on Prussia because Bismarck ______________________ “incidents” to provoke them • ___________________ was taken prisoner with 83,000 others • ___________________ eventually led the French to _______________ • January 18, 1871 – King Wilhelm I of Prussia was crowned _________ (emperor) at the Palace of ____________________ in France • Empire called the ______________________ Reich • The ___________ Reich was the ________________________ Empire

  33. A Shift in Power • 1815 - Congress of ____________ established ______ Great Powers in Europe • _______________________________________________________ • All were nearly equal in strength • Mid-1800’s – • ______________ joined with German states to form ______________ • 1871 – • _______________________________ were the most powerful (militarily & economically) • France in middle • _________________________________lagged FAR behind

  34. Revolution in the Arts Section 4

  35. The Ideas of Romanticism • Deep interest both in ______________ & in the thoughts & feelings of the _______________________ • Beliefs… • Inner feelings, emotions, & __________________________ • Mysterious, __________________, exotic, grotesque, or ___________ • Loved beauties of ______________________ nature • _______________________ the past as simpler • Glorified _______________________ • ______________ traditions, music, & stories • Valued _________________ people & individuals • Promoted radical changes & __________________________

  36. Romanticism in Literature • _______________ was the highest form of expression • ___________________________________________________ … • One of the earliest & greatest ___________________ writers ~ German • The _______________________________________– 1774 novel • Sensitive man whose love for a married woman drives him to suicide • _________________________________… • German ____________________ • Collected __________________________ • created a ___________________ & grammar of the German language • ________________________________… • French • Wrote _________________________ & The Hunchback of Notre Dame

  37. The Gothic Novel • Often took place in ___________________________________ • Filled with fearful, __________________, & sometimes _________________________ events • _______________________by Mary __________________ • Monster created by body parts of dead humans

  38. Composers Emphasize Emotion • Moved away from tightly controlled, formal compositions of the _______________________________ • Celebrated ___________________ & ____________________ with power of expression • Music became part of the _________________________ life & musicians & composers became popular like rock/pop stars of today • ___________________________________ … • _____ Symphony – celebrates freedom, dignity, & triumph of human spirit • ______________________________________ … • Used A _______________________________ as inspiration

  39. Shift to Realism in the Arts • Rapid ________________________ affected everyday life • Workers lived grim __________ lives in crowded ____________ • Industrialization made _______________ seem ________________ • _________________ – showed life as it was NOT as it should be • Paintings showed working class & their __________________

  40. Photographers Capture Reality • 1835 - __________________________ after their French inventor Louis Daguerre • First ______________________ successful photographic process • ____________________ (British) invented a light-sensitive paper used to produce photographic _________________ • Many prints could be made from one negative • Photos could be reproduced in _______________ &/or newspapers • ____________________________________ • Photography became the ____________ of the new industrial age

  41. Writers Study Society • ____________________… • French writer • Exposed ________________ of workers in shops, factories, & coal mines • Led to ____________________ & reformed working conditions • _______________________________… • English novelist • Wrote about _______________________ working poor • A Christmas Carol • David Copperfield • _____________________ • Oliver Twist • _____________________

  42. Impressionists React Against Realism • Painters who tried to show their ___________________ of a subject or a moment in time • Fascinated by ______________, used more pure, shimmering colors • Showed more ________________ view of the new urban society • _________________ enjoying themselves at dance halls & cafes • Theater & __________________ performers • Glorified the _________________________ • Famous Impressionist… • _____________________________ • Pierre-Auguste Renoir • __________________– (lived in ____________________________for a while, you can visit his home)