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Chapter 2. Database Environment. Agenda. Three-Level ANSI-SPARC Architecture Database Languages Data Models Functions of DBMS Components of DBMS Teleprocessing. Three-Level ANSI-SPARC Architecture. External User's view Conceptual Organization view (entity, attribute, & relationship)

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Chapter 2


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    1. Chapter 2 Database Environment

    2. Agenda • Three-Level ANSI-SPARC Architecture • Database Languages • Data Models • Functions of DBMS • Components of DBMS • Teleprocessing

    3. Three-Level ANSI-SPARC Architecture • External • User's view • Conceptual • Organization view (entity, attribute, & relationship) • Constraints and security • Internal • Physical presentation • Storage, index, compression, & encryption

    4. Database Schemas • Database schema (intension) & database instance (extension) • External schemas (subschema) • Conceptual schema (database schema) • Internal schema

    5. Mapping • External/conceptual mapping • Conceptual/internal mapping • Example

    6. Data Independence • Logical data independence • Physical data independence

    7. Database Languages • Data Definition Language (DDL) • Structured Query Language (SQL) • Data Manipulation Language (DML) • Procedural DML • Non-procedural DML • Structured Query Language (SQL) • Query-by-Example (QBE) • Fourth-Generation Language • Form, report, graphics, & application generators

    8. Data Models • Definition • Integrated concept for describing data, relationship and constraints • Types • Object-based data models • Record-based data models • Physical data models (internal structure, ordering, & paths)

    9. Object-Based Data Models • Entity-relationship • Entity, attribute, relationship • Usage • Object-oriented • Object, class, subclass, inheritance, state (attributes), behavior (methods or actions), encapsulation, message, polymorphism • Usage

    10. Record-Based Data Models • Relational data model • Network model • Hierarchical Model

    11. Relational Data Model • Terminology • Relations • Attributes • Tuples • Record relationship • One-to-many relationship • Usage • Ad hoc reporting • Example

    12. Network Model • CODASYL DBTG • Terminology • Data item & group item • Record type: owner, member • Set type: optional, mandatory, permanent • Record relationship • Many-to-many relationship • Link or pointer between set owner and set member • Usage • Large volume transaction processing

    13. Hierarchical Model • IBM • Information Management Systems • Terminology • Tree, general tree, & subtree • Nodes, root node, parent node, and child node • Segment type (root, parent, child) • Record relationship • One-to-many relationship • Link or pointer between parent node and child node • Excellent referential integrity • Inflexible • No many-to-many relationship • Usage • Large volume transaction processing

    14. Functions of a DBMS • Data storage, retrieval and update • A user-accessible catalog • Transaction support • Concurrency control • Recovery • Authorization • Integrity • Data independence • Data communication • Other Utilities

    15. Components of a DBMS • Query processor • Database manager • File manager • DML preprocessor • DDL compiler • Catalog manager

    16. Components of Database Manager • Authorization control • Command processor • Integrity checker • Query optimizer • Transaction manager • Scheduler • Recovery manager • Buffer manager

    17. Teleprocessing - I • Two-tier client-server architecture • Client: user interface, business and data processing logic • Database server: data validation and database access • Advantage: accessing to distributed database, increasing performance and consistency, lowering server and communication cost, and supporting open systems architecture

    18. Teleprocessing - II • Three-tier client-server architecture • Client: user interface • Application server: business and processing logic • Database server: data validation and database access • Advantage: reducing client cost, software distribution, maintenance cost, and balancing load

    19. Teleprocessing - III • Transaction processing (TP) monitor • Transaction manager between client and server • Advantage: transaction routing and distributed transaction for load balancing

    20. Points to Remember • Three-Level ANSI-SPARC Architecture • Database Languages • Data Models • Functions of DBMS • Components of DBMS • Teleprocessing

    21. Assignment • Review chapters 1, 2, and appendix C • Read chapters 3 & 4 (skip relational calculus 4.2) • Assignment 2 • Due date: