HIV PREVENTION EDUCATION. By Stacie Brua RN, BSN. Definition of HIV. HIV = Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV attacks the immune system, causing deficiency or damage in the immune system. HIV damages the body’s ability to fight disease and infections. HIV leads to AIDS.
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By Stacie Brua RN, BSN
HIV = Human Immunodeficiency Virus
HIV attacks the immune system, causing deficiency or damage in the immune system.
HIV damages the body’s ability to fight disease and infections.
HIV leads to AIDS
AIDS = Acquired Immune Deficiency or Syndrome.
ACQUIRED- not hereditary, HIV must enter the bloodstream to be infectious.
IMMUNODEFIECIENCY- when the immune system is damage, the body is unable to fight off infection
SYNDROME- HIV causes a combination of symptoms, diseases, and infections.
Is a complex caused by HIV, which kills or impairs cells of the immune system and progressively destroys the body’s ability to fight infection and disease.
The term AIDS applies to the most advanced stages of an HIV infection.
Requires a + HIV antibody test or evidence of HIV infection and the appearance of some very specific conditions or diseases.
HIV is not necessarily AIDS
People diagnosed with AIDS have HIV, but not all people with HIV get AIDS.
HIV enters the bloodstream and seeks out “T-helper lymphocyte” (WBC’S)
T-helper lymphocytes can also be referred to as T4 or CD4 cell.
When the virus infects the T-helper lymphocyte, the cell sends signals to other cells which produce antibodies.
What are antibodies?
HIV infects and destroys the T-helper lymphocytes and damages their ability to signal for antibody production.
Resulting in the decline of the immune system.
This is the first stage of HIV disease.
Lasts 1-2 weeks.
Period of time when the body first becomes infected with HIV and when the body is able to produce antibodies to HIV.
Could take 2 weeks to 3 months for antibodies to develop
Time when a person may not produce sufficient antibodies to be detected on HIV antibody tests.
Following the acute phase.
The individual looks and feels well, this stage can last for years.
The individual is INFECTIOUS
HIV was discovered in 1983
In 1999 researchers reported they discovered the origins of HIV-1
A subspecies of chimpanzees native to west Africa was identified as the original source of the virus.
Humans acquired the virus from the blood of these infected chimpanzees
Two types- HIV-1 and HIV-2
Worldwide the predominant virus is HIV-1
HIV-2 is uncommon and found in West Africa
Both of these types have multiple subtypes.
Either stain mutates quickly.
Epidemiology means the study of how disease is distributed in populations and of the factors that influence or determine this distribution.
The CDC estimates there are between 1,039,000 to 1,185,000 person in the US that are infected with HIV.
About 40,000 people in the US become infected yearly.
The United Nations AIDS program estimates that 38.6 people are in the world living with HIV or AIDS in 2005.
4.1 million people worldwide became infected with HIV in 2005.
Half of these were people between 15-24. Why?????
Need an HIV source
Need a sufficient dose of virus
Need an access to the bloodstream of another person
Anal, vaginal, and oral intercourse
Mother transmitting virus either through breast milk or during birth
Needle stick injuries or infected body fluids coming into contact with BROKEN SKIN OR MUCOUS MEMBRANES
Transfusion prior to 1986 with infected blood or blood products
Availability of HIV in sufficient quantities
How strong (viability) the HIV virus is in the infected person
How infectious (virulence) the HIV is
The ability for the virus to reach the blood stream ex. Unprotected sex, broken skin, IV drug users sharing needles
Avoid injecting drug abuse
Occupational exposure- anticipated exposure via skin, eye, mucous membrane, or parenteral contact with blood during the performance of one’s job duties.
Exposure incident- a specific eye, mouth, other mucous membrane, broken skin or parenteral contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials while performing your job duties.
Body fluids that are linked to the transmission of HIV, HBV (hepatitis B), HCV (hepatitis C): blood, blood products, semen, vaginal secretions, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial (joint) fluid, pleural (lung) fluid, peritoneal (gut) fluid, pericardial (heart) fluid, amniotic (fluid surrounding the fetus) fluid, saliva in dental procedures, and specimens with known HIV, HBV, or HCV
Bloodborne pathogen training
Hepatitis B vaccination
Infection control systems
Personal protective equipment (PPE)
Safer medical devices
Specimen Handling each year.
Regulated waste disposal
Tags / Labels
Food & drink
Post exposure management
HIV / HBV research labs & production facilities
STEP 1: Screening Test done on a specimen is called Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA).
This test screens for the presence of antibodies to HIV
Specimen options include: blood, oral fluid, or urine
A “reactive” (+) or antibodies detected, must be confirmed by an additional test
Step 2: if the rapid test is reactive (+) then a Western Bolt is required
Verifies the presence of HIV antibodies and detects individual proteins that make up HIV
This test is costly