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HIV PREVENTION EDUCATION. By Stacie Brua RN, BSN. Definition of HIV. HIV = Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV attacks the immune system, causing deficiency or damage in the immune system. HIV damages the body’s ability to fight disease and infections. HIV leads to AIDS.

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Hiv prevention education

HIV PREVENTION EDUCATION

By Stacie Brua RN, BSN


Definition of hiv
Definition of HIV

HIV = Human Immunodeficiency Virus

HIV attacks the immune system, causing deficiency or damage in the immune system.

HIV damages the body’s ability to fight disease and infections.

HIV leads to AIDS


Definition of aids
Definition of AIDS

AIDS = Acquired Immune Deficiency or Syndrome.

ACQUIRED- not hereditary, HIV must enter the bloodstream to be infectious.

IMMUNODEFIECIENCY- when the immune system is damage, the body is unable to fight off infection

SYNDROME- HIV causes a combination of symptoms, diseases, and infections.


Hiv prevention education
AIDS

Is a complex caused by HIV, which kills or impairs cells of the immune system and progressively destroys the body’s ability to fight infection and disease.

The term AIDS applies to the most advanced stages of an HIV infection.


Diagnosis
DIAGNOSIS

Requires a + HIV antibody test or evidence of HIV infection and the appearance of some very specific conditions or diseases.

HIV is not necessarily AIDS

People diagnosed with AIDS have HIV, but not all people with HIV get AIDS.


How hiv works in the body
HOW HIV WORKS IN THE BODY

HIV enters the bloodstream and seeks out “T-helper lymphocyte” (WBC’S)

T-helper lymphocytes can also be referred to as T4 or CD4 cell.

When the virus infects the T-helper lymphocyte, the cell sends signals to other cells which produce antibodies.

What are antibodies?


Hiv prevention education

HIV infects and destroys the T-helper lymphocytes and damages their ability to signal for antibody production.

Resulting in the decline of the immune system.


Primary or acute hiv infection
PRIMARY OR ACUTE HIV INFECTION damages their ability to signal for antibody production.

This is the first stage of HIV disease.

Lasts 1-2 weeks.


Window period
WINDOW PERIOD damages their ability to signal for antibody production.

Period of time when the body first becomes infected with HIV and when the body is able to produce antibodies to HIV.

Could take 2 weeks to 3 months for antibodies to develop

Time when a person may not produce sufficient antibodies to be detected on HIV antibody tests.


Asymptomatic stage
ASYMPTOMATIC STAGE damages their ability to signal for antibody production.

Following the acute phase.

The individual looks and feels well, this stage can last for years.

The individual is INFECTIOUS


Origin of hiv
ORIGIN OF HIV damages their ability to signal for antibody production.

HIV was discovered in 1983

In 1999 researchers reported they discovered the origins of HIV-1

A subspecies of chimpanzees native to west Africa was identified as the original source of the virus.

Humans acquired the virus from the blood of these infected chimpanzees


Hiv strains and subtypes
HIV STRAINS AND SUBTYPES damages their ability to signal for antibody production.

Two types- HIV-1 and HIV-2

Worldwide the predominant virus is HIV-1

HIV-2 is uncommon and found in West Africa

Both of these types have multiple subtypes.

Either stain mutates quickly.


Epidemiology
EPIDEMIOLOGY damages their ability to signal for antibody production.

Epidemiology means the study of how disease is distributed in populations and of the factors that influence or determine this distribution.

The CDC estimates there are between 1,039,000 to 1,185,000 person in the US that are infected with HIV.

About 40,000 people in the US become infected yearly.


Hiv prevention education

In the US there are approximately over 17,000 with AIDS die each year.

The United Nations AIDS program estimates that 38.6 people are in the world living with HIV or AIDS in 2005.

4.1 million people worldwide became infected with HIV in 2005.

Half of these were people between 15-24. Why?????


Three conditions necessary for transmission
THREE CONDITIONS NECESSARY FOR TRANSMISSION each year.

Need an HIV source

Need a sufficient dose of virus

Need an access to the bloodstream of another person


Hiv transmission
HIV TRANSMISSION each year.

Anal, vaginal, and oral intercourse

Mother transmitting virus either through breast milk or during birth

Needle stick injuries or infected body fluids coming into contact with BROKEN SKIN OR MUCOUS MEMBRANES

Transfusion prior to 1986 with infected blood or blood products


Requirements for hiv transmission
REQUIREMENTS FOR HIV TRANSMISSION each year.

Availability of HIV in sufficient quantities

How strong (viability) the HIV virus is in the infected person

How infectious (virulence) the HIV is

The ability for the virus to reach the blood stream ex. Unprotected sex, broken skin, IV drug users sharing needles


Risk reduction methods
RISK REDUCTION METHODS each year.

Sexual abstinence

Monogamous relationships

Limiting partners

Safe sex

Avoid injecting drug abuse

Syringe exchange


Occupational exposure
OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE each year.

Occupational exposure- anticipated exposure via skin, eye, mucous membrane, or parenteral contact with blood during the performance of one’s job duties.

Exposure incident- a specific eye, mouth, other mucous membrane, broken skin or parenteral contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials while performing your job duties.


Blood other infectious materials
BLOOD & OTHER INFECTIOUS MATERIALS each year.

Body fluids that are linked to the transmission of HIV, HBV (hepatitis B), HCV (hepatitis C): blood, blood products, semen, vaginal secretions, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial (joint) fluid, pleural (lung) fluid, peritoneal (gut) fluid, pericardial (heart) fluid, amniotic (fluid surrounding the fetus) fluid, saliva in dental procedures, and specimens with known HIV, HBV, or HCV


Exposure control plan
EXPOSURE CONTROL PLAN each year.

Bloodborne pathogen training

Hepatitis B vaccination

Infection control systems

Personal protective equipment (PPE)

Safer medical devices

Hand hygiene

Housekeeping

Disinfectants


Hiv prevention education

Specimen Handling each year.

Regulated waste disposal

Sharps disposal

Tags / Labels

Personal activities

Food & drink

Post exposure management

HIV / HBV research labs & production facilities


Hiv antibody tests
HIV ANTIBODY TESTS each year.

STEP 1: Screening Test done on a specimen is called Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA).

This test screens for the presence of antibodies to HIV

Specimen options include: blood, oral fluid, or urine

A “reactive” (+) or antibodies detected, must be confirmed by an additional test


Hiv prevention education

Step 2: if the rapid test is reactive (+) then a Western Bolt is required

Verifies the presence of HIV antibodies and detects individual proteins that make up HIV

This test is costly