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HIV Prevention. Historical Perspective. Probably originated in west Africa Virus thought to have jumped species (from chimpanzees to hunters) Identified as GRID in U.S. 1981. Data. About 50,000 Americans are infected yearly

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historical perspective
Historical Perspective
  • Probably originated in west Africa
  • Virus thought to have jumped species (from chimpanzees to hunters)
  • Identified as GRID in U.S. 1981
  • About 50,000 Americans are infected yearly
  • About 1.1 million Americans are living with HIV (16% do not know their status)
  • More than 635,000 have died in U.S.
  • About 30 million have died worldwide
what is hiv what is aids
What is HIV? What is AIDS?
  • Human immunodeficiency virus
  • Can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
  • Attacks body’s immune system, allowing opportunistic infections
  • Untreated, AIDS is

almost universally fatal

how hiv is spread
How HIV is Spread

Through blood or

body fluid contact with

infected person

  • Unprotected sexual intercourse (oral, anal, and penis-vagina)
  • Sharing needles
  • From mother to child
    • While baby develops in mother’s uterus
    • At time of birth
    • During breastfeeding
how hiv is not spread
How HIV is NOT Spread
  • Hugs or handshakes
  • Drinking glasses
  • Sneezes, coughs
  • Kissing
  • Mosquitos
  • Towels
  • Toilet seats
  • Doorknobs
signs and symptoms of hiv teens and adults
Signs and Symptoms of HIV: Teens and Adults
  • Often show no symptoms at time of infection
  • Can pass virus to others before status is known
  • May take up to 10 years for symptoms to show

Which teen has HIV?

stages of hiv
Stages of HIV
  • Acute infection
    • 2 – 4 weeks after infection
    • May feel sick with flu-like symptoms
  • Clinical latency (often called asymptomatic)
    • Those on ART, this stage may last decades
    • Those not on ART, this stage may last up to a decade
  • AIDS
    • Immune system badly damaged
    • Vulnerable to opportunistic infections
symptoms of aids teens and adults
Symptoms of AIDS:Teens and Adults
  • Rapid weight loss
  • Intense fatigue
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Persistent diarrhea
  • Night sweats
  • Pneumonia
opportunistic infections
Opportunistic Infections

Definition: HIV weakens one’s immune system, increasing susceptibility to:

  • Tuberculosis
  • Viral and bacterial infections
  • Cancers
    • Kaposi’s sarcoma
    • Lymphomas
  • Pneumonia
  • Wasting syndrome
  • Kidney disease
  • Dementia
prevention of hiv
Prevention of HIV
  • Delay intimate sexual behavior
  • Limit sexual partners
  • Get tested and share results with potential partner
  • Use latex condoms and dental dams with all intimate sexual behaviors
  • Do not share injection drug equipment
prevention of hiv in babies
Prevention of HIV in Babies
  • Get tested if planning a pregnancy or early in pregnancy
  • If pregnant and HIV positive, ART can reduce risks from 20% to 2%
  • If HIV positive, do not breastfeed baby
testing for hiv
Testing for HIV
  • Testing only way to know
  • HIV tests detect antibodies

in saliva or blood

  • Go to
  • Testing is easy, free, and only takes 20 minutes
  • Antibodies can be detected between 12 weeks and 6 months after exposure
  • Care should be taken to avoid infecting others
testing for hiv where to go
Testing for HIV: Where to Go
  • HIV testing zip code locator website:
  • Public Health Department
  • Health care provider
hiv tests
HIV Tests
  • Confidential
  • Blood or saliva
    • Standard blood test: results in 2 weeks, sent to state lab
    • Rapid test: results in 20 minutes
  • Counseling and provision of resources:
    • status
    • treatment options
    • scheduling medical appointment
    • preventing infection of others
    • notification of partner
hiv testing may be different in some counties
HIV Testing (may be different in some counties)
  • See a nurse to assess risk factors
  • Receive counseling on risk reduction
  • Sent to lab to get test
  • Come back in 2 weeks for results
  • If negative, no contact will be made
  • If positive, disease intervention specialist will discuss treatment and contact partners (name not divulged)
barriers to testing
Barriers to Testing
  • Stigma
  • Fear
  • Lack of awareness of risk factors
  • Unwillingness to change behavior
if test is positive
If Test is Positive . . .
  • Regular blood tests
  • Treatment usually starts when immune system weakens
  • NCDHHS will inform partner(s)
  • Use condoms consistently and correctly
  • ART is antiretroviral therapy (combination of HIV medications)
  • ART cannot cure HIV, but can help people live longer healthier lives
  • 1 or 2 pills once a day
  • There are side effects
  • Must be taken the rest of one’s life