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Bellringer. Have out your poster and stamp sheet and any late work! Look over notes for your quiz: HINT: have you looked at your geography? Objective: SWBAT use reading comprehension skills to prepare them for identifying similarities and differences between German and Italian Unification

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  • Have out your poster and stamp sheet and any late work!

  • Look over notes for your quiz: HINT: have you looked at your geography?

  • Objective: SWBAT use reading comprehension skills to prepare them for identifying similarities and differences between German and Italian Unification

  • BJOTD: What did the zero say to the eight?


  • Location

  • Time Period: 1858-1870

Leaders of the unification
Leaders of the Unification

  • Victor Emmanuel II

    • King of the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, he would eventually become the first King of a united Italy.

Leaders of the unification1
Leaders of the Unification

  • Camillodi Cavour

    • Prime Minister of Italy under Victor Emmanuel II. He worked to expand the influence of his home, Piedmont-Sardinia (see map), and by doing this, eventually led the unification of all of Italy.

    • Cavour used diplomacy (political agreements) to bring the country together

Leaders of the unification2
Leaders of the Unification

  • Giuseppe Garibaldi

    • The nationalist leader of a small army of nationalist rebels in Southern Italy. He and his followers united the Southern part of Italy.

How italy became united
How Italy became United

  • First, Cavour had to get the Austrians out of Italy. To do this, he turned to France. France and Piedmont-Sardinia made an agreement to kick Austria out of Lombardy and Venetia. Cavour then picked a fight with Austria, and with France, drove them out of all the provinces except Venetia.

  • As Cavour took over the north, Garibaldi was uniting the south. Cavour also wanted to control the south, so he started sending Garibaldi and his Italian nationalist army money. This army was known as the Red Shirts because Garibaldi always wore a red shirt into battle. Garibaldi started fighting in Sicily, crossed the water to the mainland and fought his way north. People fought to volunteer for him, and he eventually controlled the south. In an election, the people voted that it was ok for Garibaldi to unite the south with the north, led by Cavour and Victor Emmanuel II.

How italy became united1
How Italy became United

  • The two groups met in Naples, and were united in 1860

  • Venetia became a part of Italy in 1866.

  • The Papal states, however, refused to unite with the rest of the country. In 1870, Italian forces forced the Papal States (led by the Pope) to become part of Italy. All of Italy was now united, and Rome became the capital.

Challenges after unification
Challenges after Unification

  • The Northern part of Italy and the Southern part of Italy spoke different forms of Italian, making it hard to communicate.

  • There was a lot of tension between the industrialized (had factories and machines) north and the farming south.

  • People of the two regions had two very different cultures and ways of life, and didn’t get along well, making it hard to stay unified.


  • Location:

  • Time Period: 1865-1871

Leaders of the unification3
Leaders of the Unification

  • King Wilhelm I of Prussia

    • Prussia was a major German state with a powerful military that Wilhelm wanted to make stronger.

    • Kaiser Wilhelm I and his Parliament didn’t agree with his plans for the military and the expansion of Prussia, so he chose a new Prime Minister, Otto von Bismarck to help him out.

Leaders of the unification4
Leaders of the Unification

  • Otto von Bismarck

    • A Junker (a member of the wealthy landowning class)

    • Followed realpolitik

      • The ends justify the means in diplomacy

      • Felt that all things could be accomplished through “blood and iron”—what do you think this means?

    • Ruled Prussia without the consent of Parliament

How germany became united
How Germany became United

  • Bismarck was ambitious—first he moved to expand Prussia’s borders. In 1864, he made an alliance with Austria and fought with them against Denmark, where they won two new states: Schleswig (Prussia ruled it) and Holstein (Austria ruled it).

  • This victory increased national pride (aka nationalism) among the Prussians--they wanted more wins, so they supported Bismarck.

  • Bismarck wanted Holstein, so he picked a fight with Austria, which led to them declaring war on Prussia in 1866. This was known as the 7 Weeks War because it was over fast, and Prussia humiliated Austria by beating them soundly. Austria had to give Prussia more territory.

  • 1867: Northern Germany was united and called the North German Confederation, led by Prussia

  • In 1867, a few parts of southern Germany remained free of Prussia. In the South, they were Catholic, and didn’t really like the Protestant North, so they didn’t want to unite. To force everyone together, Bismarck picked a fight with France by sending a fake letter from Wilhelm I that insulted the French.

  • The French got mad, and declared war on Prussia on July 19, 1870. The Southern part of Germany united with Prussia and immediately marched into France and by September, had taken 80,000 prisoners. Prussia sieged Paris, and within 4 months Paris surrendered. This was called the Franco-Prussian War.