Chapter 1 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

chapter 1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 1 PowerPoint Presentation
play fullscreen
1 / 21
Chapter 1
248 Views
Download Presentation
cady
Download Presentation

Chapter 1

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Chapter 1 Science and Marine Biology © 2006 Thomson-Brooks Cole

  2. Importance of the Oceans and Marine Organisms • Principal physical feature of the planet • Drive weather patterns © 2006 Thomson-Brooks Cole

  3. Importance of the Oceans and Marine Organisms • Productive—provides substantial part of the human food supply • Marine organisms are useful as subjects of scientific study for many areas of research © 2006 Thomson-Brooks Cole

  4. Study of the Sea and Its Inhabitants • Oceanography • study of the oceans and their phenomena, such as waves, currents and tides • Marine biology • study of the living organisms that inhabit the seas and their interactions with each other and their environment • Ecology of the marine environment © 2006 Thomson-Brooks Cole

  5. © 2006 Thomson-Brooks Cole

  6. Marine Biology: A History of Changing Perspectives • Early studies of marine organisms • Aristotle and the “ladder of life” • Pliny the Elder’s Natural History • Renewed interest in marine organisms • voyage of the HMS Beagle and Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species • discovery of organisms on retrieved transatlantic telegraph cable © 2006 Thomson-Brooks Cole

  7. © 2006 Thomson-Brooks Cole

  8. Marine Biology: A History of Changing Perspectives • Beginnings of modern marine science • Challenger expedition • 4,700 new species collected and described • Charles Wyville Thomson collected plankton • marine studies in the United States • expeditions of Alexander Agassiz • funding of the first marine biology laboratory: Anderson Summer School of Natural History, predecessor of the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole • other U.S. marine laboratories © 2006 Thomson-Brooks Cole

  9. © 2006 Thomson-Brooks Cole

  10. Marine Biology: A History of Changing Perspectives • Marine biology in the twentieth century • Fridtjof Nansen’s Arctic expedition • Sir Alistair Hardy’s Antarctic expedition • Marine biology today • Deep-sea submersibles • Information sharing via the Internet © 2006 Thomson-Brooks Cole

  11. Process of Science • Hypothesis • Scientific method – an orderly pattern of gathering and analyzing information • inductive reasoning • deductive reasoning • observations © 2006 Thomson-Brooks Cole

  12. Steps in the Scientific Method • Making observations • Using inductive reasoning to form a hypothesis • Using deductive reasoning to design experiments • experimental variable • experimental set • control set © 2006 Thomson-Brooks Cole

  13. Steps in the Scientific Method • Gathering results • Drawing conclusions • theory versus hypothesis • Plant growth in a salt marsh: a case study of the scientific method • observation of growth patterns and analysis of soil samples • experiment to test hypothesis • analysis of results of the experiment © 2006 Thomson-Brooks Cole

  14. © 2006 Thomson-Brooks Cole

  15. © 2006 Thomson-Brooks Cole

  16. © 2006 Thomson-Brooks Cole

  17. Process of Science • Alternative methods of science • experimentation is not always possible • observational science – observation alone must be used to support or deny the hypothesis • The science of marine biology • Introduction to Marine Biology 2nd edition contains “Science of Marine Biology” features to illustrate the application of the scientific method in studying the seas © 2006 Thomson-Brooks Cole

  18. Key Concepts • Marine and terrestrial environments are interrelated, interactive, and interdependent. • The ocean is an important source of food and other resources for humans. • Marine biology is the study of the sea’s diverse inhabitants and their relationships to each other and their environment. © 2006 Thomson-Brooks Cole

  19. Key Concepts • The history of marine biology is one of changing perspectives that have shaped the modern science and its applications. • Marine laboratories play an important role in education, conservation, and biological research. © 2006 Thomson-Brooks Cole

  20. Key Concepts • It is important to study marine biology in order to make informed decisions about how the oceans and their resources should be used and managed. • Scientists use an organized approach called the scientific method to investigate natural phenomena. © 2006 Thomson-Brooks Cole

  21. © 2006 Thomson-Brooks Cole