Benzene Awareness. NSTC-19. Course Overview. lntroductions. Name Company and/or position Experience related to working in areas where there is the possibility of benzene exposure. Administration and Safety. Emergency Procedures Restrooms/Breaks/Smoking Safety Minute. Goal.
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Benzene Awareness NSTC-19
lntroductions • Name • Company and/or position • Experience related to working in areas where there is the possibility of benzene exposure.
Administration and Safety • Emergency Procedures • Restrooms/Breaks/Smoking • Safety Minute
Goal To provide employees with the knowledge to recognize a benzene exposure hazard and the appropriate control measures in areas where there are materials that contain benzene.
Objectives • Describe the characteristics of benzene • Describe the health effects from benzene exposure • Identify potential locations where benzene may be found • Recognize and describe the control measures and PPE that will protect against benzene exposure • Describe employer and employee responsibilities for protecting against the hazards of benzene exposure
Benzene Standards • Benzene is regulated by OSHA under 29 CFR 1910.1028. • Operators on the North Slope have company standards which meet or exceed the OSHA standard. 29 CFR 1910.1028 (b)
Benzene Terms • Benzene is a liquefied or gaseous chemical with the formula C6H6. • A regulated area is any area where airborne concentrations of benzene exceed permissible exposure limits (PEL). • An authorized person is any person specifically authorized by the employer whose duties require the person to enter a regulated area where benzene may be present. 29 CFR 1910.10 28 (b)
Exposure Terms • Employee exposure is the exposure to airborne benzene which would occur if the employee were not using respiratory protective equipment. • Action level is an airborne concentration of benzene of 0.5 ppm calculated as an 8 hr. time-weighted average (TWA). • Site specific requirements for exposure limits and action levels may be more stringent at some locations. 29 CFR 1910.10 28 (b)
Benzene Molecule • Simplest member of aromatic hydrocarbons. • Molecular structure: 6 carbon atoms and 6 hydrogen atoms. • Formula: C6 H6 • Hydrocarbon molecule with alternating single and double bonds.
Benzene Characteristics • Colorless to light yellow when in the liquid state; has a pleasant, sweet odor • Toxic as a liquid or gas; not soluble in water • Odor does not provide adequate warning of its hazard • Vapor is heavier than air and may spread long distances to some distant source of ignition • Extremely flammable; flash point: 12 F. • Solid below 42 F. • Reacts vigorously with oxidizing materials 29 CFR 1910.10 28 , Appendix A, I
Where Benzene is Found on North Slope • Crude oil (0.5-3% by weight) • Diesel fuel (0.1-0.5% by weight) • NGLs (Natural gas liquids) • Various gas streams • Degreasing products • Produced water • Automotive sources • Adhesive coatings and paint
Workers Who May Be at Risk • Production and transfer operations employees • Camp maintenance and custodial staff • Tank and pipeline cleaners • Electricians, plumbers, and HVAC technicians
How Benzene Enters the Body • Inhalation • Ingestion • Absorption • Injection 29 CFR 1910.10 28 , Appendix A, I
Acute Health Effects • Drowsiness • Dizziness and headaches • Skin irritation and dermatitis • Nausea and a feeling of intoxication • Vertigo and delirium • Convulsions and loss of consciousness • Death may occur at concentrations equal to or greater than 10,000 ppm. 29 CFR 1910.10 28 Appendix A , II
Chronic Health Effects • Carcinogenic; affects the blood-making tissues of the body to include bone marrow abnormalities, anemia, and other blood cell abnormalities • Can cause leukemia, multiple myeloma, and subsequent death in workers who are exposed to benzene for extended periods of time 29 CFR 1910.10 28 Appendix A , II
Benzene Detection • Sometimes benzene can be detected by its odor (34–119 ppm) but it is not a reliable indicator. • Measurements should be obtained by using benzene detecting badges, charcoal tubes, and gas chromatographs. Benzene Gas Detector Gas “Chip” Detector Gas “Tube” Detector with Hand Pump
OSHA Exposure Limits • Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) is 1.0 ppm for an 8 hour day and 0.67 for a 12 hour day • Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL) is 5.0 ppm for any 15 minute period during the day with 60 minutes between exposures and no more than 4 exposures in an 8 hour day. • The Action Level is 0.5 ppm for an 8 hour day. • Company standards may be more stringent than the OSHA standard ( e.g. BP Alaska action level is 0.3) 29 CFR 1910.10 28 (b-c)
Engineering Controls • Personal enclosure • Control of process conditions • Mechanical ventilation (dilution and exhaust) • Remote or automated operation • Leak detection and repair systems
Administrative Controls • MSDS • Signs and properly labeled containers • Periodic monitoring and notification of employees about exposure levels • Limiting exposure to the chemical • Following company rules and policies • Training
Signs • Signs shall be posted at the entrance to regulated areas DANGER BENZENE CANCER HAZARD FLAMMABLE – NO SMOKING AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY RESPIRATOR REQUIRED 29 CFR 1910.10 28 (j) (1) (i)
Labels • Benzene containers shall be properly labeled • There is no requirement to label pipes. 29 CFR 1910.10 28 (j) (1) (ii)
Personal Protective Equipment • Respiratory Protection • Air purifying half mask to 6.7 ppm • Air purifying full face mask to 33 ppm • SCBA or supplied air w/escape pack above 33 ppm • Eye / Skin Protection • Chemical safety goggles • Face shield • Nitrile gloves for crude oil & viton for NGLs • Aprons, protective clothing and footwear
First Aid • Call for help. • If eyes or skin are exposed, immediately flush with large amounts of water for 15 minutes. • Clothing should be changed if it becomes benzene saturated. • If the victim has inhaled benzene and is not breathing, a qualified person should give CPR. • In all cases, get medical attention.
Employer Responsibilities If exposures are over the PEL, the employer must establish and implement a written compliance program to include: • A schedule for development and implementation of engineering controls and work practices. • Initial and periodic monitoring. • Employee notification of monitoring results. • Medical surveillance program. • Information and training about benzene at the time of the initial work assignment. • Respiratory protection training. 29 CFR 1910.10 28 (j) ((1) (ii)
Employee Responsibilities • Read and follow procedures for the recognition and control of benzene. • Mitigate recognized hazards. • Use the proper PPE when entering a regulated area. • Report any emergencies. 29 CFR 1910.10 28 (j) ((1) (ii)