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Human Resource Management 10 th Edition Chapter 6 SELECTION
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  1. Human Resource Management 10th EditionChapter 6SELECTION © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  2. HRM in Action: Substance Abuse Testing • 80% of larger corporations in U.S. require workplace drug testing • Drug users are more than twice as likely to leave work early or miss days, are two-and-a-half times more likely to be absent for eight days or more and are three times more likely to be late for work. • More than three-and-a-half times more likely to be involved in a workplace accident and five times more likely to file a workers’ compensation claim © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  3. HRM in Action: Substance Abuse Testing (Cont.) • Most experts regard blood tests as the forensic benchmark against which to compare others • Hair sample analysis claim it can detect drug use from three days to 90 days after drug consumption • Oral fluid testing is especially well-suited to cases of reasonable suspicion and post accident testing © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  4. Selection • Process of choosing from group of applicants the individual best suited for a particular position and the organization • Goal of selection process is to properly match people with jobs and organization • Top performers contribute from 5-22 times more value to companies than midlevel or low performers © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  5. Environmental Factors Affecting the Selection Process • Other HR functions • Legal considerations • Decision making speed • Organizational hierarchy • Applicant pool • Type of organization • Probationary period © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  6. Other HR Functions Selection process affects, and is affected by, virtually every other HR function. © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  7. Legal Considerations • Human resource management is greatly influenced by legislation, executive orders, and court decisions • Guiding principle -Why am I asking this question? • If information is job related, usually asking for the information is appropriate © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  8. Speed of Decision Making Time available to make selection decision can have major effect on selection process © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  9. Organizational Hierarchy Different approaches to selection are generally taken for filling positions at different levels in organization © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  10. Organizational Hierarchy (Cont.) • Extensive background checks and multiple interviews would most likely apply for the executive position • An applicant for a clerical position would probably take a word processing test and perhaps have a short employment interview © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  11. Applicant Pool • Number of qualified applicants recruited for a particular job © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  12. Selection Ratio • Number of people hired for a particular job compared to number of individuals in the applicant pool • Selection ratio of 0.10 indicates that there were 10 qualified applicants for an open position © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  13. Type of Organization • Prospective employees in private sector screened with regard to how they can help achieve profit goals • Government civil service systems identify qualified applicants through competitive examinations • Individuals considered for positions in not-for-profit organizations must be qualified and dedicated to work © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  14. Probationary Period • Period that permits evaluating employees ability based upon performance • May be a substitute for certain phases of the selection process • Job related © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  15. Recruited Candidate The Selection ProcessExternal EnvironmentInternal Environment Preliminary Interview Review of Applications and Résumés Selection Tests Rejected Applicants Employment Interviews Pre-Employment Screening: Background and Reference Checks Selection Decision Physical Examination New Employee © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  16. Preliminary Interview • Removes obviously unqualified individuals • Positive benefits - Applicant may be qualified for another position with the firm © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  17. Preliminary Interview - Telephone Interview • Narrow pool of applicants before having formal face-to-face interview • Cut down on wasted time and effort • Lacks advantages of face-to-face contact • Not possible to observe nonverbal cues © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  18. Preliminary Interview - Videotaped Interview • Using structured interview format designed by hiring firm, interviewer can videotape candidate’s responses • Interviewer may not interact with the candidate • Does not replace personal interviews • Allows for broader search © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  19. Review of Applications • Application form must reflect not only firm’s informational needs, but also EEO requirements. • Essential information is included and presented in standardized format • May vary from firm to firm, and even by job type within organization © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  20. Preprinted Statements on Application Form • Certifies that information provided on form is accurate and true • Should state position is employment at will • Gives permission to have background and references checked © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  21. Review of Résumés • Résumé - Goal-directed summary of experience, education, and training developed for use in selection process • Professional/managerial applicants often begin selection process by submitting résumé • Includes career objective for specific position • All important concept of relevancy © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  22. Sending Résumés via the Internet • Most large companies now use automated tracking systems • Résumés deviating from assumed style are ignored • Résumé should be as computer/scanner friendly as possible © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  23. Keyword Résumé • Keywords - Words or phrases used to search databases • Keyword résumé - Adequate description of job-seeker’s characteristics and industry-specific experience presented in keyword terms to accommodate the computer search process © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  24. Additional Recommendations • Avoid special characters. • Do not use tabs; use space bar. • Do not use word-wrap feature; use hard returns to insert line breaks. • Use default font and size. • Do not use boldface and italics. • Do not use blocks. • Do not use columns. • Do not place names or lines on sides of résumés © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  25. Administration of Selection Tests • Advantages • Potential Problems using Selection Tests • Characteristics of Properly Designed Selection Tests © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  26. Advantages of Selection Tests • Reliable and accurate means of selecting qualified candidates • Cost small in comparison • Identify attitudes and job-related skills that interviews cannot recognize © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  27. Potential Problems Using Selection Tests • Can do v. Will do • Legal liabilities • Test anxiety © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  28. Characteristics of Properly Designed Selection Tests • Standardization - Uniformity of procedures and conditions of administering test • Objectivity - Everyone scoring a test obtains same results • Norms - Frame of reference for comparing applicant's performance with that of others © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  29. Characteristics of Properly Designed Selection Tests (Cont.) • Reliability - Provides consistent results • Validity - Measures what it is supposed to measure (Basic Requirement) • Requirement for Job Relatedness – Test must work without having adverse impact on minorities, females, and individuals with backgrounds or characteristics protected under law © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  30. Types of Validation Studies • Criterion-related validity - Comparing scores on selection tests to some aspect of job performance • Content validity - Performs certain tasks actually required by job. • Construct validity - Measures certain traits or qualities important in performing job © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  31. Types of Employment Tests • Cognitive aptitude • Psychomotor abilities • Job Knowledge • Work-sample (simulation) • Vocational interests • Personality © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  32. Cognitive Aptitude Tests Measures individual’s ability to learn, as well as to perform a job © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  33. Psychomotor Abilities Tests • Strength • Coordination • Dexterity © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  34. Job Knowledge Tests • Measure candidate's knowledge of duties of position for which he or she is applying • Are commercially available © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  35. Work-Sample • Tests requiring applicant to perform task or set of tasks representative of job • Such tests by their nature are job related • Produces highly validity, reduces adverse impact, and is more acceptable to applicants © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  36. Vocational Interests • Indicates occupation in which person is most interested and most likely to receive satisfaction from • Primary used in counseling and vocational guidance © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  37. Personality Tests • Traits • Temperaments • Dispositions © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  38. Unique Forms of Testing • Genetic • Graphoanalysis • Polygraph Tests © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  39. Genetic Testing Determines whether person carries gene mutation for certain diseases, including heart disease, colon cancer, breast cancer and Huntington’s disease © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  40. Graphoanalysis (Handwriting Analysis) • Many people view handwriting analysis in same context as psychic readings or astrology • In Europe, many employers use graphoanalysis to help screen and place job applicants © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  41. Polygraph Tests • Confirm or refute application information • Employee Polygraph Protection Act of 1988 severely limited use in private sector © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  42. Internet Testing Increasing being used to test skills required by applicants © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  43. Assessment Centers Selection technique used to identify and select employees for positions Requires them to perform activities similar to those in job • In-basket exercises • Management games • Leaderless discussion groups • Mock interviews © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  44. Employment Interview • Goal-oriented conversation where interviewer and applicant exchange information • Continues to be primary method used to evaluate applicants • At this point, candidates appear to be qualified © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  45. Interview Planning • Compare applicant’s application and résumé with job requirements • Develop questions related to qualities sought • Prepare step-by-step plan to present position, company, division, and department • Determine how to ask for examples of past job-related applicant behaviors © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  46. Content of the Interview • Occupational experience • Academic achievement • Interpersonal skills • Personal qualities • Organizational fit © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  47. Organizational Fit • Management’s perception of degree to which prospective employee will fit in with firm’s culture or value system • Employees also should consider organizational fit when debating whether or not to accept a job offer © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  48. Candidate’s Role and Expectations While interviewer provides information about company, it is important for applicants to do their homework © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  49. Types of Interviews • Unstructured (nondirective) • Structured (directive or patterned) © 2008 by Prentice Hall

  50. Unstructured (Nondirective) Interview • Asks probing, open-ended questions • Encourages applicant to do much of the talking • Often time-consuming • Potential legal woes © 2008 by Prentice Hall