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Human Resource Management 10 th Edition Chapter 7 TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT. HRM in Action: Job Security versus Career Security. Job security - Implies security in one job, often with one company

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hrm in action job security versus career security
HRM in Action: Job Security versus Career Security
  • Job security-Implies security in one job, often with one company
  • Career security-Requires developing marketable skills and expertise that help ensure employment within a range of careers
  • Employability doctrine- Employees owe the company their commitment while employed and the company owes its workers the opportunity to learn new skills, but that is as far as the commitment goes

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

jobs identified for extinction
Jobs Identified for Extinction
  • Stockbrokers, auto dealers, mail carriers, insurance and real estate agents, telephone repair people (wireless technology will take over), computer data entry personnel (voice recognition technology and scanning devices will eliminate the manual effort), and library researchers

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

training and development t d
Training and Development (T&D)
  • Training and development (T&D) - Heart of a continuous effort designed to improve employee competency and organizational performance
  • Training - Provides learners with the knowledge and skills needed for their present jobs

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

training and development t d cont
Training and Development (T&D) (Cont.)
  • Development - Learning that goes beyond today’s job and has a more long-term focus
  • Prepares employees to keep pace with organization as it changes and grows

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

t d costs
T&D Costs
  • Over $50 billion every year on formal T&D programs
  • Average annual expenditure per employee for training rose to $955, but averaged $1,368 per employee in large organizations
  • Purpose of T&D - Improved performance

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

learning organization
Learning Organization
  • Firms that recognize critical importance of continuous performance-related training and development and take appropriate action
  • Workers rewarded for learning and provided enriched jobs, promotions, and compensation
  • Organizations with reputation of being learning leader attract more and better qualified employees

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

factors influencing t d
Factors Influencing T&D
  • Top management support
  • Commitment from specialists and generalists
  • Technological advances
  • Organizational complexity
  • Learning principles
  • Other human resource functions

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

learning generalizations
Learning Generalizations
  • Learners progress in area of learning only as far as need to achieve purposes
  • Best time to learn is when learning can be useful
  • Try to space out training sessions

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

just in time training
Just-in-time Training

Training provided anytime, anywhere in the world when it is needed

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

training and development t d process external environment internal environment

Training and Development (T&D) ProcessExternal EnvironmentInternal Environment

Determine Specific T&D Needs

Establish Specific T&D Objectives

Select T&D Method (s) and Delivery System (s)

Implement T&D Programs

Evaluate T&D Programs

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

determining specific training and development needs
Determining Specific Training and Development Needs

A systematic approach to addressing bona fide needs must be undertaken

Organizational analysis

Task analysis

Person analysis

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

establishing specific training and development objectives
Establishing Specific Training and Development Objectives
  • Desired end results
  • Clear and concise objectives must be formulated

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

blended training
Blended Training
  • Firms utilize a number of methods for imparting knowledge and skills to workforce
  • Usually more than one method, called blended training, is used to deliver the training

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

t d methods
Instructor-Led

Case Study

Behavior Modeling

Role Playing

Business Games

In-Basket Training

On-the-Job Training

Job Rotation

Internships

Apprenticeship Training

T&D Methods

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

instructor led
Instructor-Led
  • Continue to be effective for many types of employee training
  • Convey great deal of information in relatively short time

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

trends innovations virtual instructor led
Trends & Innovations: Virtual Instructor-Led
  • Enables students to do practically anything they could do in traditional classroom
  • Blackboard Learning System - Software application for delivering education online

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

case study
Case Study
  • T&D method in which trainees study the information provided in the case and make decisions based on it
  • Used in classroom with instructor who serves as facilitator

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

behavior modeling
Behavior Modeling
  • T&D method which permits a person to learn by copying or replicating behaviors of others to show managers how to handle various situations
  • Examples - Conducting performance appraisal reviews, correcting unacceptable performance, delegating work, improving safety habits, handling discrimination complaints, overcoming resistance to change, orienting new employees, and mediating individuals or groups in conflict

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

role playing
Role Playing
  • T&D method where participants are required to respond to specific problems they may encounter in their jobs by acting out real-world situations
  • Used to teach such skills as:

interviewing

grievance handling

performance appraisal reviews conference leadership

team problem solving communication

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

business games
Business Games

Permits participants to assume roles such as president, controller, or marketing vice president of two or more similar hypothetical organizations and compete against each other by manipulating selected factors in a particular business situation

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

in basket training
In-Basket Training

Exercise in which participant is asked to establish priorities for and then handle a number of business papers or e-mail messages such as memoranda, reports, and telephone messages that would typically cross a manager’s desk

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

on the job training
On-the-Job Training
  • Informal T&D method that permits an employee to learn job tasks by actually performing them
  • Most commonly used T&D method
  • No problem transferring what has been learned to the task

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

job rotation
Job Rotation
  • Employees move from one job to another to broaden experience
  • Helps new employees understand variety of jobs

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

internships
Internships
  • Training approach where university students divide time between attending classes and working for organization
  • Excellent means of viewing potential permanent employee at work
  • Students are enabled to integrate theory with practice

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

apprenticeship training
Apprenticeship Training
  • Combines classroom instruction with on-the-job training
  • Traditionally used in craft jobs
  • Apprentice earns less than master craftsperson who is instructor

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

training development delivery systems
Training & Development Delivery Systems
  • Corporate Universities
  • Colleges and Universities
  • Community Colleges
  • Online Higher Education
  • Videoconferencing
  • Vestibule Training
  • Computer-Based Systems
  • Video Media
  • E-Learning
  • Simulators

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

corporate universities
Corporate Universities
  • T&D delivery system provided under the umbrella of the organization
  • Focus on creating organizational change
  • Proactive and strategic
  • Growth attributed to universities’ flexibility
  • Estimated 2,000 in U.S.

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

colleges and universities
Colleges and Universities
  • Primary delivery system for training professional, technical, and management employees
  • Corporate training programs often partner with colleges and universities

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

community colleges
Community Colleges
  • Publicly funded higher education establishments
  • Deliver vocational training and associate degree programs
  • Rapid technological changes and corporate restructuring have created new demand for community college resources

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

online higher education
Online Higher Education
  • Educational opportunities including degree and training programs delivered either entirely or partially, via the Internet
  • Allows employees to attend class at lunchtime, during day or in evening
  • Reduces commute to school

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

videoconferencing
Videoconferencing
  • Many firms in the United States use videoconferencing and satellite classrooms for delivering T&D
  • Interactive and offers flexibility and spontaneity of traditional classroom
  • Global firms, in particular, can benefit
  • Increase access to training, ensure consistency of instruction, and reduce cost of delivering T&D programs

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

vestibule system
Vestibule System
  • T&D delivery system that takes place away from the production area on equipment that closely resembles equipment actually used on the job
  • Removes employee from pressure of having to produce while learning
  • Emphasis on learning skills required by job

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

video media
Video Media
  • DVDs, videotapes, and film clips continues to be popular training delivery systems
  • Especially appealing to small businesses

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

e learning
E-Learning

Delivery system for online instruction

Available anytime, anywhere in the world, and in different languages

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

virtual reality
Virtual Reality
  • Unique extension of e-learning
  • Permits trainees to view objects from a perspective otherwise impractical or impossible

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

simulators
Simulators

Devices or programs that are located away from the job site and replicate actual job demands

Example: training of airline pilots in a simulator

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

management development
Management Development
  • All learning experiences resulting in upgrading of skills and knowledge needed in current and future managerial positions
  • Imperative managers keep up with latest developments in their fields while managing ever-changing workforce in dynamic environment
  • First-line supervisors, middle managers, and executives may all participate in management development programs

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

mentoring
Mentoring
  • Approach to advising, coaching, and nurturing, for creating practical relationship to enhance individual career, personal, and professional growth and development
  • Mentor may be located elsewhere in organization or in another firm
  • Relationship may be formal or informal

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

mentoring coaching for women and minorities
Mentoring/Coaching for Women and Minorities
  • Some believe that having a mentor is essential to make it to the top
  • Mentors tend to seek out their mirror images
  • Since women and minorities are not equally represented at the firm’s top levels, they are often left without a mentor

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

specific roles of mentors
Specific Roles of Mentors
  • Coaching
  • Sponsor advancement
  • Provide challenging assignments
  • Protect employees from adverse forces
  • Encourage positive visibility
  • Offer personal support
  • Friendship
  • Acceptance
  • Counseling
  • Role modeling

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

coaching
Coaching
  • Often considered responsibility of immediate boss
  • Provides assistance much as a mentor

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

reverse mentoring
Reverse Mentoring

Process where the older employees learn from the younger ones.

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

orientation
Orientation
  • Initial T&D effort designed for employees
  • Strives to inform them about company, job and workgroup

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

purposes of orientation
Purposes of Orientation
  • Employment situation
  • Company policies and rules
  • Compensation and benefits
  • Corporate culture
  • Team membership
  • Employee development
  • Dealing with change
  • Socialization

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

responsibility for and scheduling of orientation
Responsibility for and Scheduling of Orientation
  • Often joint responsibility of training staff and line supervisor
  • Peers often excellent information agents

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

onboarding executive orientation
Onboarding (Executive Orientation)

Help new executives quickly learn organization’s structure, culture and politics so they can start making contributions to organization as soon as possible

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

special training areas
Special Training Areas
  • Diversity - Develop sensitivity to create more harmonious working environment
  • English as a Second Language - Help employees in way that validates them and optimizes personal relationships
  • Ethics - Develop corporate culture that rewards ethical behavior
  • Telecommuter - Permit manager and employee to define job responsibilities and set goals and expectations

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

special training areas cont
Special Training Areas (Cont.)
  • Customer Service - Teaches employees the skills needed to meet and exceed customer expectations
  • Conflict Resolution - Communication skills needed to resolve gridlock
  • Teamwork - How to work in groups
  • Empowerment - How to make decisions and accept responsibility

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

special training areas cont50
Special Training Areas (Cont.)
  • Remedial - Basic literacy/mathematics skills
  • Anger Management - Help participants take control of angry outbursts

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

implementing human resource development programs
Implementing Human Resource Development Programs
  • Often difficult
  • Many managers are action-oriented
  • Feel they are too busy to engage in T&D efforts
  • Qualified trainers must be available
  • Requires high degree of creativity

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

metrics for evaluating training and development
Metrics for Evaluating Training and Development
  • Participants’ Opinions
  • Extent of Learning
  • Behavioral Change
  • Accomplishment of T&D Objectives
  • Benchmarking

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

participants opinions
Participants’ Opinions
  • Measure level of customer satisfaction
  • Overall experience may bias some reports
  • Good way to obtain feedback and to get it quickly and inexpensively

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

extent of learning
Extent of Learning
  • Determine what participants have learned
  • Pre-test-post-test control group design
  • Differences are attributed to training provided
  • Problem: Controlling for variables other than training

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

behavioral change
Behavioral Change
  • Tests may accurately indicate what trainees learn
  • May give little insight into whether participants to changed their behavior
  • Best demonstration of value: When learning translates into lasting behavioral change

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

accomplishment of t d objectives
Accomplishment of T&D Objectives
  • Has it achieved stated objectives and actually impacted performance
  • Might establish a return on investment (ROI) metric

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

benchmarking
Benchmarking
  • Process of monitoring and measuring a firm’s internal processes, such as operations, and then comparing data with information from companies that excel in those areas
  • Focus on metrics such as: training costs, the ratio of training staff to employees, and whether new or more traditional delivery systems are used

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

workforce investment act
Workforce Investment Act
  • Replaces Job Training Partnership Act and consolidates more than 70 federal job-training programs
  • Meet needs of business for skilled workers and satisfy training, education, and employment needs of individuals

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

organization development od
Organization Development (OD)
  • Planned process of improving an organization by developing its structures, systems, and processes to improve effectiveness and achieve desired goals
  • Applies to entire system such as a company or plant
  • Major means of achieving change in corporate culture

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

od interventions
OD Interventions
  • Survey feedback
  • Quality circles
  • Team building
  • Sensitivity training

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

survey feedback
Survey Feedback
  • Process of collecting data from organizational unit through use of questionnaires, interviews and other objective data
  • Can create working environments that lead to better working relationships, greater productivity and increased profitability

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

survey feedback steps
Survey Feedback Steps
  • Members of organization involved in planning survey
  • All members of organizational unit participate in survey
  • OD consultant usually analyzes data and tabulates results
  • Data feedback
  • Feedback meetings

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

quality circles
Quality Circles
  • Groups of employees who voluntarily meet regularly with supervisors to discuss problems
  • Investigate causes
  • Recommend solutions

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

team building
Team Building
  • Conscious effort to develop effective workgroups
  • Uses self-directed teams
  • Small group of employees responsible for entire work process
  • Members work together to improve their operation

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

sensitivity training
Sensitivity Training
  • Participants learn about themselves and how others perceive them
  • No agenda, leaders, authority, power positions
  • People learn through dialogue
  • Participants encouraged to learn about themselves and others in group
  • Also called T-group training

© 2008 by Prentice Hall

a global perspective learning the culture of china
A Global Perspective: Learning the Culture of China

The Chinese Language School of Connecticut Inc., a nonprofit organization, has branched out to help companies wishing to initiate trade with China or learn more about the country’s culture and traditions

© 2008 by Prentice Hall