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Hazardous substances

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  1. Hazardous substances Definition (a) -toxic -flammable -explosive (b) activities are hazardous if cause significant harm (c) characterized as hazardous nationally (d) regulated as hazardous nationally

  2. Hazardous substances Regulation -manufacture (worker exposure, accidents) -transport (accidents) -use (exposure, accidents) -waste

  3. Hazardous substancesaccidents Regional international regulation: • EU Seveso Directive amended 1987, 1988, • Sandoz, Bhopal 1984 • UNECE C on transboundary effects of ind accidents 1992 • 1996 -Seveso Directive II with mandatory obligations for industry, public authorities • Aznalcollar (Sp)1998, Eschede (Ger)2000, Baia Mare (Roum)2000, Toulouse (Fr) 2001

  4. Hazardous substancesaccidents UNECE Convention 1992 • Prevention (list of operators, hazards, inform potential victims, report past accidents, new siting only with consultation, env impact assessment) • Preparedness (emergency plans, local authority, inform/access to judicial system, alarm systems....) • Protocol on civil liability

  5. Hazardous substancesinformation Classification of hazardous substances • Agenda 21 • Soft law eg FAO Guidelines: pesticide use, code of conduct, various chemical information instruments ILO, WHO, UNEP • Rotterdam Convention 1998

  6. Hazardous substancesinformation FAO Code of Conduct on distribution and use of pesticides 1985 (for private and public entities) • Increased awareness • Alternative methods • Assistance in legislation • Attempts to stop sale of banned pesticides • Training • Life-cycle management of pesticides

  7. Hazardous substancesproviding information Rotterdam Convention 1998 • Banned or severely restricted chemicals, Severely hazardous pesticides • Prior informed consent (PIC) to export and import • National enforcement • Harmonize customs codes, labelling standards • Industry measures to promote safe use • COP, Secretariat

  8. Hazardous substances and wastesTransport UNECE regional Transport conventions: • ADR 1957 + protocols, +annexes eg on packaging, labelling, vehicle construction, training of crews • UNECE Civil Liability Convention for Damage during Transport of….by Road, Rail, inland Navigation 1989

  9. Hazardous substanceswork place protection (indirect env) International Labour Organisation (ILO) Asbestos Benzene

  10. Waste Definition: Municipal Hazardous radioactive (high, low level) Disposal options Landfills Incineration Reuse/recycle

  11. Hazardous waste E-junk landfill, China Ocean dumping, ocean incineration

  12. waste Marine London Dumping Convention 1972, 1993 - deliberate disposal of wastes, incl. man-made structures - 3 annexes -highly hazardous-prohibited with exceptions - special care substances-special permit - other waste-general permit - permitting procedure itself specified

  13. waste London Dumping Convention (contd) • Permitting/ enforcement through coastal state/national authority • Flag state of vessel responsible for vessels in high seas • Report permits to IMO • Consult with IMO/potential victim state before permitting dumping: show no alternatives, show harmlessness

  14. waste London Dumping Convention (contd) • Under COP decisions, moratorium on radioactive waste dumping since 1994 • No export of waste for ocean dumping • No waste incineration at sea since 1991 • No industrial waste disposal at sea since 1996 • Limited disposal of dredged material • All the above, and no seabed storage of wastes, to come in revised Protocol 1996 (not in force)

  15. Waste US - 130m cellphones - new purchase every 18 mo‘s - 1% recycled - 90 m computers, 15% recycled, 80% Asian dumps/recycling

  16. Hazardous waste (internal memo of then World Bank Chief economist Lawrence Summers, 1991): “I think the economic logic behind dumping a load of toxic waste in the lowest wagecountryisimpeccable and we should face up to the fact that… underpopulated countries in Africa are vastly underpolluted.“ (Then Environment Minister of Brazil, JoseLutzenberger found words for the collective outragein his written rebuke to the Bank): "Your reasoningis perfectly logical but totally insane...your thoughts[provide] a concrete example of the unbelievablealienation, reductionist thinking socialruthlessnessand the arrogant ignorance of many conventional`economists' concerning the nature of the world welive in."

  17. Waste trade Basel/Basle Convention 1989 • Scope (art 1) Hazardous (annex 1) Other (annex II) Not radioactive • National definitions

  18. Waste trade Basel Convention (contd) MS rights and obligations (art 4): • Right to prohibit imports • Consent to imports in writing- ie, Prior Informed Consent • No export if management not possible in an environmentally sound manner • Prevent import if management not possible in an environmentally sound manner

  19. Waste trade Basel Convention (contd) • Illegal traffic is criminal, regulation and enforcement by national authority • No trade with non-parties • No disposal south of 60 South latitude • Transporters must be authorized • Labelling, packaging, transport standards • Documents for tracing path of HW

  20. Waste trade Basel Convention (contd) • Duty to re-import in case conditions not fulfilled

  21. Waste trade Basel Convention (contd) • All exports not carried out acc to Convention are illegal (art 9) • Special arrangements possible among parties under Art 11! • Protocol on liability (art 12) • COP, UNEP Secretariat

  22. Waste trade Basel Convention (contd) Liability Protocol (1999) Criticism: this trade should not exist at all Export Ban Amendment 1995 (art 4A)

  23. Waste trade Bamako Convention 1991 (OAU, UNECA): • Complete ban of imports into MS • Waste includes Basel Convention wastes + radioactive wastes+nationally defined hw+those banned by states • No wastes for recycling, reuse • Prior written consent an obligation • Return illegal traffic to exporter only

  24. Waste trade Regional treaties: Barcelona Convention Protocol 1991 Waigani treaty ---Asia targeted

  25. Waste trade Lome Convention 1989: • Complete ban between EC and ACP states • Hazardous, radioactive wastes Possibly undermined by new Cotonou Agreement 2000

  26. Land based marine pollution Soft • UNEP Montreal Guidelines • Agenda 21, Global Action Plan resulting in Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (2001) Regional • UN regional seas, Mediterranean, South-east Pacific, Persian Gulf, Black Sea • National monitoring, reporting • No prior consultation, notification, equal access • No coordination with watercourses conventions

  27. Hazardous substances, wastes Conclusions: -haz substances: large number of instruments, needs coordination -wastes/haz wastes: focus on prevention needed