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toxic and hazardous substances
Toxic and Hazardous Substances

These handouts and documents with attachments are not final, complete, or definitive instruments. This information is for guidance purposes only. You should independently verify and satisfy yourself as to its accuracy. The AHBSIF does not assume any liability for damages arising from the use of this information or exhibits and attachments thereto and renders no opinion that any of the terms, conditions, and/or cited federal standards in this document and the exhibits and attachments should be explicitly followed by the fund member. Seek specific guidance from the appropriate regulator (OSHA) or professional advisor.

subpart contents
Subpart Contents
  • This presentation will cover the following information:
    • Toxic and Hazardous Substances Overview
    • Asbestos
    • Hexavalent Chromium
    • Lead
    • Mold and Mildew
    • Soil Contamination Management
toxic and hazardous substances1
Toxic and Hazardous Substances
  • Toxic and Hazardous substances are defined as:
    • Chemicals present in the workplace which are capable of causing harm.
  • Includes dusts, mixtures, paints, fuels, and solvents
  • Engineering Controls when feasible
  • Personal Protective Equipment
  • Training
  • Hygiene Practices
    • Change Rooms
    • Washing Facilities
    • Eating/Drinking Areas
    • Prohibited Activities
  • Housekeeping
  • Medical Surveillance
  • Hazard Communication
  • Recordkeeping
  • Operations where asbestos may be present
    • Demolition or salvage of structures
    • Construction, alteration, repair, maintenance, structural renovation
    • Transportation, disposal, containment of housekeeping activities involving ACM’s
health effects
Health Effects
  • Heaviest exposures are in the construction industry
  • Causes two types of cancer:
    • Cancer of the lung tissue
    • Mesothelioma, a cancer of the thin membrane that surrounds the lung
  • These diseases do not develop immediately following exposure to asbestos, but appear only after a number of years.

Asbestos Work

  • Class I
    • Activities involving the removal of TSI and surfacing ACM and PACM
  • Class II
    • Activities involving the removal of non-thermal non-surfacing ACM’s
      • Example: Wallboard, floor tile and sheeting, roofing materials, mastics
  • Class III
    • Repair and maintenance operations where ACM and/or PACM are likely to be disturbed
  • Class IV
    • Maintenance and custodial activities during which employees contact but do not disturb ACM or PACM, includes dust, waste and debris cleanup from Class I-III activities
permissible exposure limits
Permissible Exposure Limits
  • Time Weighted Average (TWA)
    • The employer shall ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of asbestos in excess of 0.1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air as an 8 hour time-weighted average
  • Excursion Limit
    • The employer shall ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of asbestos in excess of 1.0 fiber/cc as averaged over a sampling period of 30 minutes
  • Appendix A specifies collection media and procedures
multi employer worksites
Multi-Employer Worksites
  • Notification to all trades not associated with abatement
  • Materials will be abated by controlling or creating contractor
  • Employers of employees exposed to abatement process are responsible for outfitting and educating workers
  • Employers of employees adjacent to abatement operations are responsible for monitoring the worksite
hexavalent chromium
Hexavalent Chromium
  • Construction standard still under proposal
  • Most common exposure, stainless steel welding operations
  • Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL)

< 5µg/M³ (micrograms/cubic meter)

  • Covers HexChrom in all forms and compounds
  • Some exceptions
    • Pesticides regulated by EPA
    • Exposures to Portland cement
    • Monitored data that shows insufficient concentrations
health effects1
Health Effects
  • Chronic exposure can lead to lung cancer
  • Breathing high levels of HexChrom can irritate or damage:
    • nose
    • throat
    • lungs
  • Irritation or damage to the eyes and skin can occur if hexavalent chromium contacts these organs in high concentrations or for a prolonged period of time.
  • Standards do not apply to
    • Workers exposed to > PEL while performing the following tasks
      • Addition of Chemicals
      • Prep and Mixing activities
      • Tank Cleaning
      • Painting
    • Employees that request a respirator
    • Employees required to wear respirators
    • Employees with exposures under PEL (1910.1000) and those covered under a respirator program in effect 05/30/2006
exposure determination
Exposure Determination
  • If concentrations exceed the PEL
    • Employer must notify affected employees in writing
    • Employer must provide written description of action to be taken to reduce exposure
    • Regulated areas must be marked and restricted
  • Engineering
  • Work Procedures
  • Combination of engineering and work procedures for large parts spraying
  • Respiratory protection must comply with 1910.134
  • Lead overexposure is one of the most common overexposures found in industry, a leading cause of workplace illness.
  • Operations that generate lead dust and fumes include;
    • Flame-torch cutting
    • Welding
    • The use of heat guns
    • Sanding, scraping, and grinding of lead painted surfaces
  • OSHA has established the reduction of lead exposure as a high strategic priority.
  • Lead poisoning is the leading environmentally induced illness in children.
health risks
Health Risks
  • Children under six are at highest risk
    • Nervous system & kidney damage
    • Decreased intelligence, learning disabilities, a.d.d.
    • Speech, language, and behavioral problems
  • Pregnancy is adversely affected by lead exposure
  • Health effects in adults may include:
    • High Blood Pressure
    • Fertility Problems
    • Digestive tract, nervous system issues
    • Memory and concentration problems
    • Sexual disorders
    • Muscle or joint pain
health effects2
Health Effects
  • Adversely affects numerous body systems, causes health impairment and disease after exposure
  • Periods can be as short as days (acute exposure) or as long as several years (chronic exposure)
  • Frequency and severity of medical symptoms increases with concentration of lead in the blood.
  • Acute poisoning symptoms include:
    • Loss of appetite
    • Nausea, Vomiting, Stomach Pain
    • Insomnia
    • Fatigue and headaches
    • Death
  • Long term poisoning can cause damage to:
    • Blood-forming
    • Nervous, urinary, and reproductive systems
mold and mildew
Mold and Mildew
  • Mold and Mildew can grow on any surface
  • Paints, stains, and water repellants are susceptible
  • Material generates via airborne spores
health effects3
Health Effects
  • Severe allergic reaction
  • Skin irritation
  • Flu-like symptoms
the four requirements for mold and mildew
The Four Requirements for Mold and Mildew
  • Air
  • Temperatures between 34°-104°F
  • Moisture with a relative humidity of

+/- 70%

  • Food source (organic material)
prevention methods
Prevention Methods
  • Properly install insulation without gaps, folds, voids, or compression.
  • Use materials like Tyvek to create tighter walls.
  • Use polyethylene to control moisture in dark, tight, and cool areas.
  • Insure that all areas containing warm moist air are properly ventilated.
  • Control water intrusion.
regulatory legislation
Regulatory Legislation
  • Federal
    • EPA
      • Environmental Protection Agency, the federal regulatory agency for environmental standards
    • RCRA
      • Resources Conservation and Recovery Act, covers hazardous waste generation, transportation, treatment, storage and disposal
    • CERCLA
      • Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act; aka the “Superfund”
    • SARA
      • Superfund Amendments Reauthorization Act, requires reporting of hazardous material releases, emergency planning, community right-to-know
  • State
    • ADEM
      • Alabama Department of Environmental Management
      • Most closely follow EPA’s standards, exceed them on some components of HazMat
hazardous waste
Hazardous Waste
  • Characteristics
    • Ignitability
      • Has flashpoint less than 140°F
    • Corrosivity
      • Possesses corrosion properties in natural state
    • Reactivity
      • Susceptible to heat, shock, decomposition, other materials
    • Toxicity
      • Presents specific biological harm in certain quantities
four key factors of abatement
Four key factors of Abatement
  • Containment
  • Reporting
  • Clean-up
  • Disposal
  • Napkins
  • Berms
  • Pads
  • Pans
  • Pillows
  • Diking for fixed locations
  • Any spill on land in excess of 25 gallons is reportable
  • Any release of petroleum into water is reportable
  • Emergency Management Association (State)
    • 334-263-7594
  • National Response Center
    • 800-424-8802
clean up
  • No quantity is too small for clean-up
  • Soil must be excavated completely
  • Transferred to suitable containers for transport
  • Stockpiling avoided if possible
  • Proper personal protective equipment if needed for abatement procedures
  • Regular monitoring of soil depending on contaminant
  • Material must be disposed of in accordance with the rules and regulations of federal and state agencies
  • ADEM
    • Office of General Council; (334)-271-7977
    • (
potential spill exposures
Potential Spill Exposures
  • Fuel dispensing areas
  • Maintenance areas
  • Equipment Failure
  • Improper Storage vessels
    • Drums
    • Buckets
    • Unapproved containers